Introduction: The rapid spread of severe infections mainly due to resistant pathogens, justifies the search for therapies aiming to restore immune functions severely compromised in patients with hematologic malignancies. Areas covered: The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of granulocyte transfusions and colony-stimulating factors as treatment strategy for hematologic patients with serious infectious complications. In addition, a survey among 21 hematologic centers, to evaluate the clinical practice for the use of G-CSF originator and biosimilars was performed. Expert commentary: Granulocyte transfusions with a target dose of at least 1.5-3 × 108 cells/kg, may be considered as an approach to bridge the gap between marrow suppression and recovery of granulocytes. G-CSF shortens the period of neutropenia, the hospitalization, the use of antibiotics and the rate of febrile neutropenia (FN) in adult and pediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and in adults with acute myeloid leukemia where these advantages nevertheless, did not translate into a clinical benefit. G-CSF biosimilar showed equivalence or non-inferiority to filgrastim. There are no data supporting the use of GM-CSF, eltrombopag and erythropoietin for preventing or treating infectious complications in patients with hematologic disorders.
SEIFEM 2017: from real life to an agreement on the use of granulocyte transfusions and colony-stimulating factors for prophylaxis and treatment of infectious complications in patients with hematologic malignant disorders / Busca, A.; Cesaro, S.; Teofili, L.; Delia, M.; Cattaneo, C.; Criscuolo, M.; Marchesi, F.; Fracchiolla, N. S.; Valentini, C. G.; Farina, F.; Di Blasi, R.; Prezioso, L.; Spolzino, A.; Candoni, A.; del Principe, M. I.; Verga, L.; Nosari, A.; Aversa, F.; Pagano, L.. - In: EXPERT REVIEW OF HEMATOLOGY. - ISSN 1747-4086. - 11:2(2018), pp. 155-168. [10.1080/17474086.2018.1420472]