Objectives: To assess the role that real-Time therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-guided optimization of continuous-infusion (CI) meropenem may have in maximizing empirical treatment and in preventing breakthrough infection and/or colonization with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) among oncohaematological patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). Methods: A monocentric, interventional, prospective study was conducted. The pharmacodynamic (PD) target was a steady-state meropenem concentration-To-MIC ratio (Css/MIC) of 4-8. The primary endpoint was 14 day all-cause mortality. The secondary endpoint was the prevalence of CRE colonization in rectal swabs of patients rehospitalized within 3months. Results: Among the 75 patients enrolled, most (56%) had AML, almost half (37/75, 49.3%) underwent HSCT and one-Third (32%) received meropenem as monotherapy. Meropenem dosages were adjusted in 30.1% of TDM reassessments. Gram-negative infections were microbiologically documented in 20.0% of patients. All of the 12 patients having infections caused by in vitro meropenem-susceptible pathogens attained the desired PD target and were cured. Three patients had infections caused by in vitro meropenem-resistant pathogens. Two of these achieved a Css/MIC target of 1 and were cured; the other one achieved a suboptimal PD target (0.59) and died. The 14 day all-cause mortality (10.7%) was significantly associated, at multivariate regression, with HSCT (OR 0.086, 95% CI 0.008-0.936, P = 0.044) and with augmented renal clearance (OR 10.846, 95% CI 1.534-76.672, P = 0.017). None of the patients who had hospital readmissions in the 3month follow-up (63/75) had CRE colonization in rectal swabs. Conclusions: Real-Time TDM-guided CI meropenem may be a useful approach for attaining adequate exposure and preventing CRE emergence in FN oncohaematological patients.
Real-Time TDM-based optimization of continuous-infusion meropenem for improving treatment outcome of febrile neutropenia in oncohaematological patients: Results from a prospective, monocentric, interventional study / Cojutti, P. G.; Lazzarotto, D.; Candoni, A.; Dubbini, M. V.; Zannier, M. E.; Fanin, R.; Pea, F.. - In: JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY. - ISSN 0305-7453. - 75:10(2020), pp. 3029-3037. [10.1093/jac/dkaa267]