By employing a reductionistic (but not simplistic) approach using an established invertebrate model system, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, we investigated whether (1) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation would cause a sickness state and impair cognitive function, and-if so-(2) would aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid-ASA) restore the impaired cognition. To test our hypotheses, we first determined if the injection of 25 mg (6.25 μg/mL) of Escherichia coli-derived LPS serotype O127:B8 altered homeostatic behavior, aerial respiration, and then determined if LPS altered memory formation when this behavior was operantly conditioned. Next, we determined if ASA altered the LPS-induced changes in both aerial respiration and cognitive functions. LPS induced a sickness state that increased aerial respiration and altered the ability of snails to form or recall long-term memory. ASA reverted the LPS-induced sickness state and thus allowed long-term memory both to be formed and recalled. We confirmed our hypotheses and provided the first evidence in an invertebrate model system that an injection of LPS results in a sickness state that obstructs learning and memory, and this impairment can be prevented by a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory.
Aspirin reverts lipopolysaccharide-induced learning and memory impairment: first evidence from an invertebrate model system / Rivi, V.; Batabyal, A.; Benatti, C.; Tascedda, F.; Blom, J. M. C.; Lukowiak, K.. - In: NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERG'S ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 1432-1912. - (2022), pp. 1-10. [10.1007/s00210-022-02286-4]