Aim: Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is a complication of diabetes in which the presence of infections, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissue associated with neuropathy, peripheral atherosclerosis and comorbidity affect the prognosis, the need for limb amputation and quality of life. Purpose of the present study is to report the features of patients with acute DFS admitted to our Diabetic Foot Unit tertiary Center in 2019. Methods: In all patients admitted, the approach was performed through a multidisciplinary team (Diabetic Foot Care Team) and described in a specific diagnostic-therapeutic-assistance program. Criteria of inclusion were presence of sepsis and/or suspected osteomyelitis and/or critical limb ischemia. Clinical features and interventions performed were registered. Primary endpoints were mortality and amputation (major, minor). Secondary endpoints were length of hospitalization, type of revascularization and duration of antibiotic therapy. Results: Among 75 consecutive patients (mean age 70.9 years) enrolled, prevalence of acute DFS was higher among men (M/F 3:1). Poor glycemic control [mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 67.9 ± 22.3 mmol/mol], long duration of diabetes (mean 19 ± 16.3 years), high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (mean 89.5 ± 45.1 mg/ dL) and obesity (mean Body Mass Index 30.2 ± 7.6 kg/m2) were common. Diabetes-related complications as peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (76%), ischemic heart disease (48%), retinopathy (40.5%), hepatic steatosis (50%), heart failure (17.8%) were present. During hospitalization, 21 subjects (28.4%) underwent lower limb amputations (overall rate of major amputation 4%), and 41.3% underwent percutaneous angioplasty. Long period of hospitalization (18.4 ± 7.9 days) and prolonged antibiotic therapy (23.9 ± 15.9 days) were observed. Major amputation was associated with C-reactive protein > 6.5 mg/dL (P = 0.03), osteomyelitis (P = 0.001), prior insulin therapy (P = 0.015). Conclusions: Male sex, co-morbidity, PAD, systemic inflammation and poor glycemic control are major features of acute hospitalized DFS. An approach through a multidisciplinary team is recommended in order to treat vascular and extra-vascular complications aimed at reducing mortality and at improving quality of life.

Risk factors in acute diabetic foot syndrome: analysis of 75 consecutive patients referred to a tertiary center in Modena, Italy / Maurantonio, M.; Gabrielli, F.; Castellano, C.; Carla, A.; Andreone, P.; Roncucci, L.. - In: EXPLORATION OF MEDICINE.. - ISSN 2692-3106. - 2:1(2021), pp. 98-109. [10.37349/emed.2021.00035]

Risk factors in acute diabetic foot syndrome: analysis of 75 consecutive patients referred to a tertiary center in Modena, Italy

Castellano C.;Andreone P.;Roncucci L.
2021

Abstract

Aim: Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) is a complication of diabetes in which the presence of infections, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissue associated with neuropathy, peripheral atherosclerosis and comorbidity affect the prognosis, the need for limb amputation and quality of life. Purpose of the present study is to report the features of patients with acute DFS admitted to our Diabetic Foot Unit tertiary Center in 2019. Methods: In all patients admitted, the approach was performed through a multidisciplinary team (Diabetic Foot Care Team) and described in a specific diagnostic-therapeutic-assistance program. Criteria of inclusion were presence of sepsis and/or suspected osteomyelitis and/or critical limb ischemia. Clinical features and interventions performed were registered. Primary endpoints were mortality and amputation (major, minor). Secondary endpoints were length of hospitalization, type of revascularization and duration of antibiotic therapy. Results: Among 75 consecutive patients (mean age 70.9 years) enrolled, prevalence of acute DFS was higher among men (M/F 3:1). Poor glycemic control [mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 67.9 ± 22.3 mmol/mol], long duration of diabetes (mean 19 ± 16.3 years), high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (mean 89.5 ± 45.1 mg/ dL) and obesity (mean Body Mass Index 30.2 ± 7.6 kg/m2) were common. Diabetes-related complications as peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (76%), ischemic heart disease (48%), retinopathy (40.5%), hepatic steatosis (50%), heart failure (17.8%) were present. During hospitalization, 21 subjects (28.4%) underwent lower limb amputations (overall rate of major amputation 4%), and 41.3% underwent percutaneous angioplasty. Long period of hospitalization (18.4 ± 7.9 days) and prolonged antibiotic therapy (23.9 ± 15.9 days) were observed. Major amputation was associated with C-reactive protein > 6.5 mg/dL (P = 0.03), osteomyelitis (P = 0.001), prior insulin therapy (P = 0.015). Conclusions: Male sex, co-morbidity, PAD, systemic inflammation and poor glycemic control are major features of acute hospitalized DFS. An approach through a multidisciplinary team is recommended in order to treat vascular and extra-vascular complications aimed at reducing mortality and at improving quality of life.
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Risk factors in acute diabetic foot syndrome: analysis of 75 consecutive patients referred to a tertiary center in Modena, Italy / Maurantonio, M.; Gabrielli, F.; Castellano, C.; Carla, A.; Andreone, P.; Roncucci, L.. - In: EXPLORATION OF MEDICINE.. - ISSN 2692-3106. - 2:1(2021), pp. 98-109. [10.37349/emed.2021.00035]
Maurantonio, M.; Gabrielli, F.; Castellano, C.; Carla, A.; Andreone, P.; Roncucci, L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1288101
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