Metazoans have evolved to produce various types of extracellular matrix (ECM) that provide structural support, cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, and regulated exposure to external cues. Epithelial cells produce and adhere to a specialized sheet-like ECM, the basement membrane, that is critical for cellular homeostasis and tissue integrity. Mesenchymal cells, such as chondrocytes in cartilaginous tissues and keratocytes in the corneal stroma, produce a pericellular matrix that presents optimal levels of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and nutrients to the cell and regulates mechanosensory signals through specific cytoskeletal and cell surface receptor interactions. Here, we discuss laminins, collagen types IV and VII, and perlecan, which are major components of these two types of ECM. We examinegenetic defects in these components that cause basement membrane pathologies such as epidermolysis bullosa, Alport syndrome, rare pericellular matrix-related chondrodysplasias, and corneal keratoconus and discuss recent advances in cell and gene therapies being developed for some of these disorders.

Genetic Disorders of the Extracellular Matrix: From Cell and Gene Therapy to Future Applications in Regenerative Medicine / Chakravarti, S.; Enzo, E.; Rocha Monteiro de Barros, M.; Maffezzoni, M. B. R.; Pellegrini, G.. - In: ANNUAL REVIEW OF GENOMICS AND HUMAN GENETICS. - ISSN 1527-8204. - 23:1(2022), pp. 193-222. [10.1146/annurev-genom-083117-021702]

Genetic Disorders of the Extracellular Matrix: From Cell and Gene Therapy to Future Applications in Regenerative Medicine

Enzo E.;Pellegrini G.
2022

Abstract

Metazoans have evolved to produce various types of extracellular matrix (ECM) that provide structural support, cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, and regulated exposure to external cues. Epithelial cells produce and adhere to a specialized sheet-like ECM, the basement membrane, that is critical for cellular homeostasis and tissue integrity. Mesenchymal cells, such as chondrocytes in cartilaginous tissues and keratocytes in the corneal stroma, produce a pericellular matrix that presents optimal levels of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and nutrients to the cell and regulates mechanosensory signals through specific cytoskeletal and cell surface receptor interactions. Here, we discuss laminins, collagen types IV and VII, and perlecan, which are major components of these two types of ECM. We examinegenetic defects in these components that cause basement membrane pathologies such as epidermolysis bullosa, Alport syndrome, rare pericellular matrix-related chondrodysplasias, and corneal keratoconus and discuss recent advances in cell and gene therapies being developed for some of these disorders.
23
1
193
222
Genetic Disorders of the Extracellular Matrix: From Cell and Gene Therapy to Future Applications in Regenerative Medicine / Chakravarti, S.; Enzo, E.; Rocha Monteiro de Barros, M.; Maffezzoni, M. B. R.; Pellegrini, G.. - In: ANNUAL REVIEW OF GENOMICS AND HUMAN GENETICS. - ISSN 1527-8204. - 23:1(2022), pp. 193-222. [10.1146/annurev-genom-083117-021702]
Chakravarti, S.; Enzo, E.; Rocha Monteiro de Barros, M.; Maffezzoni, M. B. R.; Pellegrini, G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1287587
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