AIMS: To assess if patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are: a) at excess risk of undergoing testing, contracting, and dying from SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to the general population; b) whether cardiovascular diseases (CAVDs) contribute to COVID-19-related death; and c) what is the effect of DM2 duration and control on COVID-19-related death. METHODS: This population-based study involved all 449,440 adult residents of the Reggio Emilia province, Italy. DM2 patients were divided in groups by COVID testing, presence of CAVDs and COVID death. Several mediation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Patients with DM2 had an increased likelihood of being tested (Odds ratio, OR 1.27 95 %CI 1.23–1.30), testing positive (OR 1.21 95 %CI 1.16–1.26) and dying from COVID-19 (OR 1.75 95 %CI 1.54–2.00). COVID-19-related death was almost three times higher among obese vs non-obese patients with DM2 (OR 4.3 vs 1.6, respectively). For COVID-19 death, CAVDs mediated a) just 5.1 % of the total effect of DM2, b) 40 % of the effect of DM2 duration, and c) did not mediate the effect of glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: For COVID-19-related deaths in DM2 patients, the effect is mostly direct, obesity amplifies it, DM2 control and duration are important predictors, while CAVDs only slightly mediates it.
Diabetes and COVID-19 testing, positivity, and mortality: A population-wide study in Northern Italy / Djuric, O.; Ottone, M.; Vicentini, M.; Venturelli, F.; Pezzarossi, A.; Manicardi, V.; Greci, M.; Giorgi Rossi, P.. - In: DIABETES RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE. - ISSN 0168-8227. - 191:(2022), pp. 110051-110051. [10.1016/j.diabres.2022.110051]