Childhood maltreatment (CM) and genetic vulnerability are both risk factors for psychosis, but the relations between them are not fully understood. Guided by the recent identification of genetic risk to CM, this study investigates the hypothesis that genetic risk to schizophrenia also increases the risk of CM and thus impacts psychosis risk. The relationship between schizophrenia polygenetic risk, CM, and psychotic-like experiences (PLE) was investigated in participants from the Utrecht Cannabis Cohort (N = 1262) and replicated in the independent IMAGEN cohort (N = 1740). Schizophrenia polygenic risk score (SZ-PRS) were calculated from the most recent GWAS. The relationship between CM, PRS, and PLE was first investigated using multivariate linear regression. Next, mediation of CM in the pathway linking SZ-PRS and PLE was examined by structural equation modeling, while adjusting for a set of potential mediators including cannabis use, smoking, and neuroticism. In agreement with previous studies, PLE were strongly associated with SZ-PRS (B = 0.190, p = 0.009) and CM (B = 0.575, p < 0.001). Novel was that CM was also significantly associated with SZ-PRS (B = 0.171, p = 0.001), and substantially mediated the effects of SZ-PRS on PLE (proportion mediated = 29.9%, p = 0.001). In the replication cohort, the analyses yielded similar results, confirming equally strong mediation by CM (proportion mediated = 34.7%, p = 0.009). Our results suggest that CM acts as a mediator in the causal pathway linking SZ-PRS and psychosis risk. These findings open new perspectives on the relations between genetic and environmental risks and warrant further studies into potential interventions to reduce psychosis risk in vulnerable people.

Childhood maltreatment mediates the effect of the genetic background on psychosis risk in young adults / Marchi, Mattia; Elkrief, Laurent; Alkema, Anne; van Gastel, Willemijn; Schubart, Chris D; van Eijk, Kristel R; Luykx, Jurjen J; Branje, Susan; Mastrotheodoros, Stefanos; Galeazzi, Gian M; van Os, Jim; Cecil, Charlotte A; Conrod, Patricia J; Boks, Marco P. - In: TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY. - ISSN 2158-3188. - 12:1(2022), pp. 219-229. [10.1038/s41398-022-01975-1]

Childhood maltreatment mediates the effect of the genetic background on psychosis risk in young adults

Marchi, Mattia;Galeazzi, Gian M;
2022

Abstract

Childhood maltreatment (CM) and genetic vulnerability are both risk factors for psychosis, but the relations between them are not fully understood. Guided by the recent identification of genetic risk to CM, this study investigates the hypothesis that genetic risk to schizophrenia also increases the risk of CM and thus impacts psychosis risk. The relationship between schizophrenia polygenetic risk, CM, and psychotic-like experiences (PLE) was investigated in participants from the Utrecht Cannabis Cohort (N = 1262) and replicated in the independent IMAGEN cohort (N = 1740). Schizophrenia polygenic risk score (SZ-PRS) were calculated from the most recent GWAS. The relationship between CM, PRS, and PLE was first investigated using multivariate linear regression. Next, mediation of CM in the pathway linking SZ-PRS and PLE was examined by structural equation modeling, while adjusting for a set of potential mediators including cannabis use, smoking, and neuroticism. In agreement with previous studies, PLE were strongly associated with SZ-PRS (B = 0.190, p = 0.009) and CM (B = 0.575, p < 0.001). Novel was that CM was also significantly associated with SZ-PRS (B = 0.171, p = 0.001), and substantially mediated the effects of SZ-PRS on PLE (proportion mediated = 29.9%, p = 0.001). In the replication cohort, the analyses yielded similar results, confirming equally strong mediation by CM (proportion mediated = 34.7%, p = 0.009). Our results suggest that CM acts as a mediator in the causal pathway linking SZ-PRS and psychosis risk. These findings open new perspectives on the relations between genetic and environmental risks and warrant further studies into potential interventions to reduce psychosis risk in vulnerable people.
2022
12
1
219
229
Childhood maltreatment mediates the effect of the genetic background on psychosis risk in young adults / Marchi, Mattia; Elkrief, Laurent; Alkema, Anne; van Gastel, Willemijn; Schubart, Chris D; van Eijk, Kristel R; Luykx, Jurjen J; Branje, Susan; Mastrotheodoros, Stefanos; Galeazzi, Gian M; van Os, Jim; Cecil, Charlotte A; Conrod, Patricia J; Boks, Marco P. - In: TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY. - ISSN 2158-3188. - 12:1(2022), pp. 219-229. [10.1038/s41398-022-01975-1]
Marchi, Mattia; Elkrief, Laurent; Alkema, Anne; van Gastel, Willemijn; Schubart, Chris D; van Eijk, Kristel R; Luykx, Jurjen J; Branje, Susan; Mastrotheodoros, Stefanos; Galeazzi, Gian M; van Os, Jim; Cecil, Charlotte A; Conrod, Patricia J; Boks, Marco P
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1285854
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