Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable ectopic calcification disorder with multiorgan clinical manifestations. The gene at default, ABCC6, encodes an efflux transporter, ABCC6, which is a critical player regulating the homeostasis of inorganic pyrophosphate, a potent endogenous anticalcification factor. Previous studies suggested that systemic inorganic pyrophosphate deficiency is the major but not the exclusive cause of ectopic calcification in PXE. In this study, we show that the DNA damage response (DDR) and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) pathways are involved locally in PXE at sites of ectopic calcification. Genetic inhibition of PAR polymerase 1 gene PARP1, the predominant PAR-producing enzyme, showed a 54% reduction of calcification in the muzzle skin in Abcc6-/-Parp1-/- mice, compared with that of age-matched Abcc6-/-Parp1+/+ littermates. Subsequently, oral administration of minocycline, an inhibitor of DDR/PAR signaling, resulted in an 86% reduction of calcification in the muzzle skin of Abcc6-/- mice. Minocycline treatment also attenuated the DDR/PAR signaling and reduced the calcification of dermal fibroblasts derived from patients with PXE. The anticalcification effect of DDR/PAR inhibition was not accompanied by alterations in plasma inorganic pyrophosphate concentrations. These results suggest that local DDR/PAR signaling in calcification-prone tissues contributes to PXE pathogenesis and that its inhibition might provide a promising treatment strategy for ectopic calcification in PXE, a currently intractable disease.
Inhibition of the DNA Damage Response Attenuates Ectopic Calcification in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum / Huang, Jianhe; Ralph, Douglas; Boraldi, Federica; Quaglino, Daniela; Uitto, Jouni; Li, Qiaoli. - In: JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY. - ISSN 0022-202X. - 142:8(2022), pp. 2140-2148. [10.1016/j.jid.2022.01.022]