Objective: Obesity is one of the main risk factors for the development gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Thus, we aim to identify changes in the urinary metabolomics profile of obese women at first trimester of pregnancy in order to predict later GDM diagnosis. Research design and methods: In this nested case-control study, urine samples collected in the first trimester of pregnancy obtained from obese women who developed GDM (n = 29) and obese women who did not develop diabetes (n = 25 NO GDM) were analyzed with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy combined with Multivariate Statistical Analysis. GDM diagnosis was obtained with one-step oral glucose load. Results: OPLS-DA significantly separated the GDM women from NO GDM women. Specifically, GDM women were characterized by a higher level of tryptophan, trigonelline, hippurate, and threonine, and lower levels of 1-methylnicotinamide, 3-hydroxykynurenine, glycocholate, isoleucine, kynurenine, and valine compared to NO GDM women. Conclusion: In a prevalently Caucasian population, the changes of some metabolites such as tryptophan, trigonelline, and branch-chained amino acids in the urinary profile of obese women in the first trimester are able to make unequivocal prediction of those which later test positive for GDM. This approach could be useful to diagnose much earlier obese women with GDM allowing lifestyle counselling and other interventions.
First trimester metabolomics 1H-NMR study of the urinary profile predicts gestational diabetes mellitus development in obese women / Piras, C.; Neri, I.; Pintus, R.; Noto, A.; Petrella, E.; Monari, F.; Dessi, A.; Fanos, V.; Atzori, L.; Facchinetti, F.. - In: THE JOURNAL OF MATERNAL-FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 1476-7058. - 35:25(2022), pp. 8275-8283. [10.1080/14767058.2021.1970133]