In hematologic cancers, Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) monitoring, using either molecular (PCR) or immunophenotypic (MFC) diagnostics, allows the identification of rare cancer cells, readily detectable either in the bone marrow or in the peripheral blood at very low levels, far below the limit of classic microscopy. In this paper, we outlined the state-of-the-art of MFC-based MRD detection in different hematologic settings, highlighting main recommendations and new challenges for using such a method in patients with acute leukemias or chronic hematologic neoplasms. The combination of new molecular technologies with advanced flow cytometry is progressively allowing clinicians to design a personalized therapeutic path, proportionate to the biological aggressiveness of the disease, in particular by using novel immunotherapies, in view of a modern decision-making process, based on precision medicine. Along with the evolution of immunophenotypic and molecular diagnostics, the assessment of Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) has progressively become a keystone in the clinical management of hematologic malignancies, enabling valuable post-therapy risk stratifications and guiding risk-adapted therapeutic approaches. However, specific prognostic values of MRD in different hematological settings, as well as its appropriate clinical uses (basically, when to measure it and how to deal with different MRD levels), still need further investigations, aiming to improve standardization and harmonization of MRD monitoring protocols and MRD-driven therapeutic strategies. Currently, MRD measurement in hematological neoplasms with bone marrow involvement is based on advanced highly sensitive methods, able to detect either specific genetic abnormalities (by PCRbased techniques and next-generation sequencing) or tumor-associated immunophenotypic profiles (by multiparametric flow cytometry, MFC). In this review, we focus on the growing clinical role for MFC-MRD diagnostics in hematological malignancies-from acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemias (AML, B-ALL and T-ALL), to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM)-providing a comparative overview on technical aspects, clinical implications, advantages and pitfalls of MFC-MRD monitoring in different clinical settings.

Multiparametric flow cytometry for MRD monitoring in hematologic malignancies: Clinical applications and new challenges / Riva, G.; Nasillo, V.; Ottomano, A. M.; Bergonzini, G.; Paolini, A.; Forghieri, F.; Lusenti, B.; Barozzi, P.; Lagreca, I.; Fiorcari, S.; Martinelli, S.; Maffei, R.; Marasca, R.; Potenza, L.; Comoli, P.; Manfredini, R.; Tagliafico, E.; Trenti, T.; Luppi, M.. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 13:18(2021), pp. N/A-N/A. [10.3390/cancers13184582]

Multiparametric flow cytometry for MRD monitoring in hematologic malignancies: Clinical applications and new challenges

Marasca R.;Potenza L.;Manfredini R.;Tagliafico E.;Luppi M.
2021

Abstract

In hematologic cancers, Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) monitoring, using either molecular (PCR) or immunophenotypic (MFC) diagnostics, allows the identification of rare cancer cells, readily detectable either in the bone marrow or in the peripheral blood at very low levels, far below the limit of classic microscopy. In this paper, we outlined the state-of-the-art of MFC-based MRD detection in different hematologic settings, highlighting main recommendations and new challenges for using such a method in patients with acute leukemias or chronic hematologic neoplasms. The combination of new molecular technologies with advanced flow cytometry is progressively allowing clinicians to design a personalized therapeutic path, proportionate to the biological aggressiveness of the disease, in particular by using novel immunotherapies, in view of a modern decision-making process, based on precision medicine. Along with the evolution of immunophenotypic and molecular diagnostics, the assessment of Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) has progressively become a keystone in the clinical management of hematologic malignancies, enabling valuable post-therapy risk stratifications and guiding risk-adapted therapeutic approaches. However, specific prognostic values of MRD in different hematological settings, as well as its appropriate clinical uses (basically, when to measure it and how to deal with different MRD levels), still need further investigations, aiming to improve standardization and harmonization of MRD monitoring protocols and MRD-driven therapeutic strategies. Currently, MRD measurement in hematological neoplasms with bone marrow involvement is based on advanced highly sensitive methods, able to detect either specific genetic abnormalities (by PCRbased techniques and next-generation sequencing) or tumor-associated immunophenotypic profiles (by multiparametric flow cytometry, MFC). In this review, we focus on the growing clinical role for MFC-MRD diagnostics in hematological malignancies-from acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemias (AML, B-ALL and T-ALL), to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM)-providing a comparative overview on technical aspects, clinical implications, advantages and pitfalls of MFC-MRD monitoring in different clinical settings.
2021
13
18
N/A
N/A
Multiparametric flow cytometry for MRD monitoring in hematologic malignancies: Clinical applications and new challenges / Riva, G.; Nasillo, V.; Ottomano, A. M.; Bergonzini, G.; Paolini, A.; Forghieri, F.; Lusenti, B.; Barozzi, P.; Lagreca, I.; Fiorcari, S.; Martinelli, S.; Maffei, R.; Marasca, R.; Potenza, L.; Comoli, P.; Manfredini, R.; Tagliafico, E.; Trenti, T.; Luppi, M.. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 13:18(2021), pp. N/A-N/A. [10.3390/cancers13184582]
Riva, G.; Nasillo, V.; Ottomano, A. M.; Bergonzini, G.; Paolini, A.; Forghieri, F.; Lusenti, B.; Barozzi, P.; Lagreca, I.; Fiorcari, S.; Martinelli, S.; Maffei, R.; Marasca, R.; Potenza, L.; Comoli, P.; Manfredini, R.; Tagliafico, E.; Trenti, T.; Luppi, M.
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