The 4S-AF scheme [Stroke risk, Symptom severity, Severity of atrial fibrillation (AF) burden, Substrate severity] was recently proposed to characterize AF patients. In this post hoc analysis we evaluated the agreement between the therapeutic strategy (rate or rhythm control, respectively), as suggested by the 4S-AF scheme, and the actual strategy followed in a patients cohort. Outcomes of interest were as follows: all-cause death, a composite of all-cause death/any thromboembolism/acute coronary syndrome, and a composite of all-cause death, any thrombotic/ischemic event, and major bleeding (net clinical outcome). We enrolled 615 patients: 60.5% male, median age 74 [interquartile range (IQR) 67–80] years; median CHA2DS2VASc 4 and median HAS-BLED 2. The 4S-AF score would have suggested a rhythm-control strategy in 351 (57.1%) patients while a rate control in 264 (42.9%). The strategy adopted was concordant with the 4S-AF suggestions in 342 (55.6%) cases, and non-concordant in 273 (44.4%). After a median follow-up of 941 days (IQR 365–1282), 113 (18.4%) patients died, 158 (25.7%) had an event of the composite endpoint. On adjusted Cox regression analysis, when 4S-AF score suggested rate control, disagreement with that suggestion was not associated with a worse outcome. When 4S-AF indicated rhythm control, disagreement was associated with a higher risk of all-cause death (HR 7.59; 95% CI 1.65–35.01), and of the composite outcome (HR 2.69; 95% CI 1.19–6.06). The 4S-AF scheme is a useful tool to comprehensively evaluate AF patients and aid the decision-making process. Disagreement with the rhythm control suggestion of the 4S-AF scheme was associated with adverse clinical outcomes.
Rhythm- or rate-control strategies according to 4S-AF characterization scheme and long-term outcomes in atrial fibrillation patients: the FAMo (Fibrillazione Atriale in Modena) cohort / Malavasi, V. L.; Vitolo, M.; Colella, J.; Montagnolo, F.; Mantovani, M.; Proietti, M.; Potpara, T. S.; Lip, G. Y. H.; Boriani, G.. - In: INTERNAL AND EMERGENCY MEDICINE. - ISSN 1828-0447. - 17:4(2022), pp. 1001-1012. [10.1007/s11739-021-02890-x]