Contamination of soil by heavy metals severely affects plant growth and causes soil pollution. While effects on plant growth have been investigated for metals taken individually or in groups, less is known about their comparative effects. In this study Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown for 14 days in Petri dishes containing medium contaminated by six common heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn), at the minimum concentrations defined as toxic by the most recent EU legislation on contamination of agricultural soils. (a) Root structure and morphology, (b) metal composition and translocation, and (c) the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were analyzed. Metals accumulated more in roots than in shoots, with concentrations that differed by several orders of magnitude depending on the metal: Cd (ca. 700 × and ca. 450 × in roots and shoots, respectively), Hg (150 ×, 80 × ), Ni (50 ×, 20 × ), Cu (48 ×, 20 × ), Zn (23 ×, 6 × ), and Pb (9 ×, 4 × ). Responses were significant for at least nine of the ten root parameters (with the exception of Hg), and five of the six shoot parameters (with the exception of Zn). Cu and Zn induced respectively the strongest responses in root hormonal (up to ca. 240% the control values for IBA, 190% for IAA) and structural parameters (up to 210% for main root length, 330% for total lateral root length, 220% for number of root tips, 600% for total root surface, and from 2.5° to 26.0° of root growth angle). Regarding the shoots, the largest changes occurred for shoot height (down to 60% for Ni), rosette diameter (down to 45% for Hg), leaf number (up to 230% for Zn) and IBA (up to 240% for Pb and Cu). A microscope analysis revealed that shape and conformation of root hairs were strongly inhibited after Cd exposure, and enhanced under Hg and Pb. The results could have positive applications such as for defining toxicity thresholds (in phytoremediation) and acceptable concentration levels (for policies) for some of the most common heavy metals in agricultural soils.

Subtoxic levels of some heavy metals cause differential root-shoot structure, morphology and auxins levels in Arabidopsis thaliana / Sofo, A.; Khan, N. A.; D'Ippolito, I.; Reyes, F.. - In: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY. - ISSN 0981-9428. - 173:(2022), pp. 68-75. [10.1016/j.plaphy.2022.01.027]

Subtoxic levels of some heavy metals cause differential root-shoot structure, morphology and auxins levels in Arabidopsis thaliana

Reyes F.
2022

Abstract

Contamination of soil by heavy metals severely affects plant growth and causes soil pollution. While effects on plant growth have been investigated for metals taken individually or in groups, less is known about their comparative effects. In this study Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were grown for 14 days in Petri dishes containing medium contaminated by six common heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn), at the minimum concentrations defined as toxic by the most recent EU legislation on contamination of agricultural soils. (a) Root structure and morphology, (b) metal composition and translocation, and (c) the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were analyzed. Metals accumulated more in roots than in shoots, with concentrations that differed by several orders of magnitude depending on the metal: Cd (ca. 700 × and ca. 450 × in roots and shoots, respectively), Hg (150 ×, 80 × ), Ni (50 ×, 20 × ), Cu (48 ×, 20 × ), Zn (23 ×, 6 × ), and Pb (9 ×, 4 × ). Responses were significant for at least nine of the ten root parameters (with the exception of Hg), and five of the six shoot parameters (with the exception of Zn). Cu and Zn induced respectively the strongest responses in root hormonal (up to ca. 240% the control values for IBA, 190% for IAA) and structural parameters (up to 210% for main root length, 330% for total lateral root length, 220% for number of root tips, 600% for total root surface, and from 2.5° to 26.0° of root growth angle). Regarding the shoots, the largest changes occurred for shoot height (down to 60% for Ni), rosette diameter (down to 45% for Hg), leaf number (up to 230% for Zn) and IBA (up to 240% for Pb and Cu). A microscope analysis revealed that shape and conformation of root hairs were strongly inhibited after Cd exposure, and enhanced under Hg and Pb. The results could have positive applications such as for defining toxicity thresholds (in phytoremediation) and acceptable concentration levels (for policies) for some of the most common heavy metals in agricultural soils.
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Subtoxic levels of some heavy metals cause differential root-shoot structure, morphology and auxins levels in Arabidopsis thaliana / Sofo, A.; Khan, N. A.; D'Ippolito, I.; Reyes, F.. - In: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY. - ISSN 0981-9428. - 173:(2022), pp. 68-75. [10.1016/j.plaphy.2022.01.027]
Sofo, A.; Khan, N. A.; D'Ippolito, I.; Reyes, F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1271117
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