Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and exploit the combination of additive manufacturing polymeric technology and structural adhesives. The main advantage is to expand the maximum dimension of the 3D printed parts, which is typically limited, by joining the parts with structural adhesive, without losing strength and stiffness and keeping the major asset of polymeric 3 D printing: freedom of shape of the system and low cost of parts. Design/methodology/approach The materials used in the paper are the following. The adhesive considered is a commercial inexpensive acrylic, quite similar to superglue, applicable with almost no surface preparation and fast curing, as time constraint is one of the key problems that affects industrial adhesive applications. The 3D printed parts were in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), obtained with a Fortus 250mc FDM machine, from Stratasys. The work first compares flat overlap joint with joints designed to permit mechanical interlocking of the adherends and then to a monolithic component with the same geometry. Single lap, joggle lap and double lap joints are the configurations experimentally characterized following a design of experiment approach. Findings The results show a failure in the substrate, due to the low strength of the polymeric adherends for the first batch of typical bonded configurations, single lap, joggle lap and double lap. The central bonded area, with an increased global thickness, never does fail, and the adhesive is able to transfer the load both with and without mechanical interlocking. An additional set of scarf joints was also tested to promote adhesive failure as well as to retrieve the adhesive strength in this application. The results shows that bonding of polymeric AM parts is able to express its full potential compared with a monolithic solution even though the joint fails prematurely in the adherend due to the bending stresses and the notches present in the lap joints. Research limitations/implications Because of the 3D printed polymeric material adopted, the results may be generalized only when the elastic properties of the adherends and of the adhesive are similar, so it is not possible to extend the findings of the work to metallic additive manufactured components. Practical implications The paper shows that the adhesives are feasible way to expand the potentiality of 3 D printed equipment to obtain larger parts with equivalent mechanical properties. The paper also shows that the scarf joint, which fails in the adhesive first, can be used to extract information about the adhesive strength, useful for the designers which have to combine adhesive and additive manufactured polymeric parts. Originality/value To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, there are scarce quantitative information in technical literature about the performance of additive manufactured parts in combination with structural adhesives and this work provides an insight on this interesting subject. This manuscript provides a feasible way of using rapid prototyping techniques in combination with adhesive bonding to fully exploit the additive manufacturing capability and to create large and cost-effective 3 D printed parts.

Evaluation of polymeric 3D printed adhesively bonded joints: effect of joint morphology and mechanical interlocking / Spaggiari, Andrea; Favali, Filippo. - In: RAPID PROTOTYPING JOURNAL. - ISSN 1355-2546. - 28:8(2022), pp. 1437-1451. [10.1108/RPJ-09-2021-0259]

Evaluation of polymeric 3D printed adhesively bonded joints: effect of joint morphology and mechanical interlocking

Spaggiari, Andrea
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
2022

Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and exploit the combination of additive manufacturing polymeric technology and structural adhesives. The main advantage is to expand the maximum dimension of the 3D printed parts, which is typically limited, by joining the parts with structural adhesive, without losing strength and stiffness and keeping the major asset of polymeric 3 D printing: freedom of shape of the system and low cost of parts. Design/methodology/approach The materials used in the paper are the following. The adhesive considered is a commercial inexpensive acrylic, quite similar to superglue, applicable with almost no surface preparation and fast curing, as time constraint is one of the key problems that affects industrial adhesive applications. The 3D printed parts were in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), obtained with a Fortus 250mc FDM machine, from Stratasys. The work first compares flat overlap joint with joints designed to permit mechanical interlocking of the adherends and then to a monolithic component with the same geometry. Single lap, joggle lap and double lap joints are the configurations experimentally characterized following a design of experiment approach. Findings The results show a failure in the substrate, due to the low strength of the polymeric adherends for the first batch of typical bonded configurations, single lap, joggle lap and double lap. The central bonded area, with an increased global thickness, never does fail, and the adhesive is able to transfer the load both with and without mechanical interlocking. An additional set of scarf joints was also tested to promote adhesive failure as well as to retrieve the adhesive strength in this application. The results shows that bonding of polymeric AM parts is able to express its full potential compared with a monolithic solution even though the joint fails prematurely in the adherend due to the bending stresses and the notches present in the lap joints. Research limitations/implications Because of the 3D printed polymeric material adopted, the results may be generalized only when the elastic properties of the adherends and of the adhesive are similar, so it is not possible to extend the findings of the work to metallic additive manufactured components. Practical implications The paper shows that the adhesives are feasible way to expand the potentiality of 3 D printed equipment to obtain larger parts with equivalent mechanical properties. The paper also shows that the scarf joint, which fails in the adhesive first, can be used to extract information about the adhesive strength, useful for the designers which have to combine adhesive and additive manufactured polymeric parts. Originality/value To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, there are scarce quantitative information in technical literature about the performance of additive manufactured parts in combination with structural adhesives and this work provides an insight on this interesting subject. This manuscript provides a feasible way of using rapid prototyping techniques in combination with adhesive bonding to fully exploit the additive manufacturing capability and to create large and cost-effective 3 D printed parts.
2022
28
8
1437
1451
Evaluation of polymeric 3D printed adhesively bonded joints: effect of joint morphology and mechanical interlocking / Spaggiari, Andrea; Favali, Filippo. - In: RAPID PROTOTYPING JOURNAL. - ISSN 1355-2546. - 28:8(2022), pp. 1437-1451. [10.1108/RPJ-09-2021-0259]
Spaggiari, Andrea; Favali, Filippo
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1267790
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