Background: Sarcopenia was reported to be associated with poor clinical outcome, higher incidence of community-acquired pneumonia, increased risk of infections and reduced survival in different clinical settings. The aim of our work is to evaluate the prognostic role of sarcopenia in patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Materials and methods: 272 COVID-19 patients admitted to the University Hospital of Modena (Italy) from February 2020 to January 2021 were retrospectively studied. All included patients underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) scan to assess pneumonia during their hospitalization and showed a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test. Sarcopenia was defined by skeletal muscle area (SMA) evaluation at the 12th thoracic vertebra (T12). Clinical, laboratory data and adverse clinical outcome (admission to Intensive Care Unit and death) were collected for all patients. Results: Prevalence of sarcopenia was high (41.5%) but significantly different in each pandemic wave (57.9% vs 21.6% p < 0.0000). At the multivariate analysis, sarcopenia during the first wave (Hazard Ratio 2.29, 95% confidence intervals 1.17 to 4.49 p = 0.0162) was the only independent prognostic factor for adverse clinical outcome. There were no significant differences in comorbidities and COVID19 severity in terms of pulmonary involvement at lung CT comparing during the first and second wave. Mixed pattern with peripheral and central involvement was found to be dominant in both groups. Conclusion: We highlight the prognostic impact of sarcopenia in COVID-19 patients hospitalized during the first wave. T12 SMA could represent a potential tool to identify sarcopenic patients in particular settings. Further studies are needed to better understand the association between sarcopenia and COVID-19.
Impact of sarcopenia in SARS-CoV-2 patients during two different epidemic waves / Menozzi, R.; Valoriani, F.; Prampolini, F.; Banchelli, F.; Boldrini, E.; Martelli, F.; Galetti, S.; Fari', R.; Gabriele, S.; Palumbo, P.; Forni, D.; Pantaleoni, M.; D'Amico, R.; Pecchi, A.. - In: CLINICAL NUTRITION ESPEN. - ISSN 2405-4577. - 47:(2022), pp. 252-259. [10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.12.001]