Porphyrias are a group of rare disorders originating from an enzyme dysfunction in the pathway of heme biosynthesis. Depending on the specific enzyme involved, porphyrias manifest under drastically different clinical pictures. The most dramatic presentation of the four congenital acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs: acute intermittent porphyria—AIP, ALAD deficiency, hereditary coproporphyria—HCP, and porphyria variegata—VP) consists of potentially life-threatening neurovisceral attacks, for which givosiran, a novel and effective siRNA-based therapeutic, has recently been licensed. Nonetheless, the clinical manifestations of acute porphyrias are multifaceted and do not limit themselves to acute attacks. In particular, porphyria-associated kidney disease (PAKD) is a distinct, long-term degenerating condition with specific pathological and clinical features, for which a satisfactory treatment is not available yet. In PAKD, chronic tubule-interstitial damage has been most commonly reported, though other pathologic features (e.g., chronic fibrous intimal hyperplasia) are consistent findings. Given the relevant role of the kidney in porphyrin metabolism, the mechanisms possibly intervening in causing renal damage in AHPs are different: among others, d-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced oxidative damage on mitochondria, intracellular toxic aggregation of porphyrins in proximal tubular cells, and derangements in the delicate microcirculatory balances of the kidney might be implicated. The presence of a variant of the human peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2), with a greater affinity to its substrates (including ALA), might confer a greater susceptibility to kidney damage in patients with AHPs. Furthermore, a possible effect of givosiran in worsening kidney function has been observed. In sum, the diagnostic workup of AHPs should always include a baseline evaluation of renal function, and periodic monitoring of the progression of kidney disease in patients with AHPs is strongly recommended. This review outlines the role of the kidney in porphyrin metabolism, the available evidence in support of the current etiologic and pathogenetic hypotheses, and the known clinical features of renal involvement in acute hepatic porphyrias.

Kidney Involvement in Acute Hepatic Porphyrias: Pathophysiology and Diagnostic Implications / Ricci, Andrea; Carmine Guida, Caludio; Manzini, Paola; Cuoghi, Chiara; Ventura, Paolo. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 11:12(2021), pp. 2324-2337. [10.3390/diagnostics11122324]

Kidney Involvement in Acute Hepatic Porphyrias: Pathophysiology and Diagnostic Implications

Andrea Ricci
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Paolo Ventura
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2021

Abstract

Porphyrias are a group of rare disorders originating from an enzyme dysfunction in the pathway of heme biosynthesis. Depending on the specific enzyme involved, porphyrias manifest under drastically different clinical pictures. The most dramatic presentation of the four congenital acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs: acute intermittent porphyria—AIP, ALAD deficiency, hereditary coproporphyria—HCP, and porphyria variegata—VP) consists of potentially life-threatening neurovisceral attacks, for which givosiran, a novel and effective siRNA-based therapeutic, has recently been licensed. Nonetheless, the clinical manifestations of acute porphyrias are multifaceted and do not limit themselves to acute attacks. In particular, porphyria-associated kidney disease (PAKD) is a distinct, long-term degenerating condition with specific pathological and clinical features, for which a satisfactory treatment is not available yet. In PAKD, chronic tubule-interstitial damage has been most commonly reported, though other pathologic features (e.g., chronic fibrous intimal hyperplasia) are consistent findings. Given the relevant role of the kidney in porphyrin metabolism, the mechanisms possibly intervening in causing renal damage in AHPs are different: among others, d-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced oxidative damage on mitochondria, intracellular toxic aggregation of porphyrins in proximal tubular cells, and derangements in the delicate microcirculatory balances of the kidney might be implicated. The presence of a variant of the human peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2), with a greater affinity to its substrates (including ALA), might confer a greater susceptibility to kidney damage in patients with AHPs. Furthermore, a possible effect of givosiran in worsening kidney function has been observed. In sum, the diagnostic workup of AHPs should always include a baseline evaluation of renal function, and periodic monitoring of the progression of kidney disease in patients with AHPs is strongly recommended. This review outlines the role of the kidney in porphyrin metabolism, the available evidence in support of the current etiologic and pathogenetic hypotheses, and the known clinical features of renal involvement in acute hepatic porphyrias.
2021
10-dic-2021
11
12
2324
2337
Kidney Involvement in Acute Hepatic Porphyrias: Pathophysiology and Diagnostic Implications / Ricci, Andrea; Carmine Guida, Caludio; Manzini, Paola; Cuoghi, Chiara; Ventura, Paolo. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 11:12(2021), pp. 2324-2337. [10.3390/diagnostics11122324]
Ricci, Andrea; Carmine Guida, Caludio; Manzini, Paola; Cuoghi, Chiara; Ventura, Paolo
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Kidney Involvement in AHP.pdf

Open access

Tipologia: Versione pubblicata dall'editore
Dimensione 1.07 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.07 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

Licenza Creative Commons
I metadati presenti in IRIS UNIMORE sono rilasciati con licenza Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal, mentre i file delle pubblicazioni sono rilasciati con licenza Attribuzione 4.0 Internazionale (CC BY 4.0), salvo diversa indicazione.
In caso di violazione di copyright, contattare Supporto Iris

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1256740
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 5
  • Scopus 10
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact