Background A cyclic corticosteroid-cyclophosphamide regimen is the first-line therapy for membranous nephropathy. Compared with this regimen, rituximab therapy might have a more favorable safety profile, but a head-to-head comparison is lacking. Methods We randomly assigned 74 adults with membranous nephropathy and proteinuria .3.5 g/d to rituximab (1 g) on days 1 and 15, or a 6-month cyclic regimen with corticosteroids alternated with cyclophosphamide every other month. The primary outcome was complete remission of proteinuria at 12 months. Other outcomes included determination of complete or partial remission at 24 months and occurrence of adverse events. Results At 12 months, six of 37 patients (16%) randomized to rituximab and 12 of 37 patients (32%) randomized to the cyclic regimen experienced complete remission (odds ratio [OR], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.13 to 1.23); 23 of 37 (62%) receiving rituximab and 27 of 37 (73%) receiving the cyclic regimen had complete or partial remission (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.63). At 24 months, the probabilities of complete and of complete or partial remission with rituximab were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.26 to 0.62) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.95), respectively, and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.61) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.93), respectively, with the cyclic regimen. Serious adverse events occurred in 19% of patients receiving rituximab and in 14% receiving the cyclic regimen. Conclusions This pilot trial found no signal of more benefit or less harm associated with rituximab versus a cyclic corticosteroid-cyclophosphamide regimen in the treatment of membranous nephropathy. A head-tohead, pragmatic comparison of the cyclic regimen versus rituximab may require a global noninferiority trial.

Rituximab or Cyclophosphamide in the Treatment of Membranous Nephropathy: The RI-CYCLO Randomized Trial / Scolari, F.; Delbarba, E.; Santoro, D.; Gesualdo, L.; Pani, A.; Dallera, N.; Mani, L. -Y.; Santostefano, M.; Feriozzi, S.; Quaglia, M.; Boscutti, G.; Ferrantelli, A.; Marcantoni, C.; Passerini, P.; Magistroni, R.; Alberici, F.; Ghiggeri, G. M.; Ponticelli, C.; Ravani, P.. - In: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY. - ISSN 1046-6673. - 32:4(2021), pp. 972-982. [10.1681/ASN.2020071091]

Rituximab or Cyclophosphamide in the Treatment of Membranous Nephropathy: The RI-CYCLO Randomized Trial

Magistroni R.;
2021

Abstract

Background A cyclic corticosteroid-cyclophosphamide regimen is the first-line therapy for membranous nephropathy. Compared with this regimen, rituximab therapy might have a more favorable safety profile, but a head-to-head comparison is lacking. Methods We randomly assigned 74 adults with membranous nephropathy and proteinuria .3.5 g/d to rituximab (1 g) on days 1 and 15, or a 6-month cyclic regimen with corticosteroids alternated with cyclophosphamide every other month. The primary outcome was complete remission of proteinuria at 12 months. Other outcomes included determination of complete or partial remission at 24 months and occurrence of adverse events. Results At 12 months, six of 37 patients (16%) randomized to rituximab and 12 of 37 patients (32%) randomized to the cyclic regimen experienced complete remission (odds ratio [OR], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.13 to 1.23); 23 of 37 (62%) receiving rituximab and 27 of 37 (73%) receiving the cyclic regimen had complete or partial remission (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.63). At 24 months, the probabilities of complete and of complete or partial remission with rituximab were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.26 to 0.62) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.95), respectively, and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.61) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.93), respectively, with the cyclic regimen. Serious adverse events occurred in 19% of patients receiving rituximab and in 14% receiving the cyclic regimen. Conclusions This pilot trial found no signal of more benefit or less harm associated with rituximab versus a cyclic corticosteroid-cyclophosphamide regimen in the treatment of membranous nephropathy. A head-tohead, pragmatic comparison of the cyclic regimen versus rituximab may require a global noninferiority trial.
2021
32
4
972
982
Rituximab or Cyclophosphamide in the Treatment of Membranous Nephropathy: The RI-CYCLO Randomized Trial / Scolari, F.; Delbarba, E.; Santoro, D.; Gesualdo, L.; Pani, A.; Dallera, N.; Mani, L. -Y.; Santostefano, M.; Feriozzi, S.; Quaglia, M.; Boscutti, G.; Ferrantelli, A.; Marcantoni, C.; Passerini, P.; Magistroni, R.; Alberici, F.; Ghiggeri, G. M.; Ponticelli, C.; Ravani, P.. - In: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY. - ISSN 1046-6673. - 32:4(2021), pp. 972-982. [10.1681/ASN.2020071091]
Scolari, F.; Delbarba, E.; Santoro, D.; Gesualdo, L.; Pani, A.; Dallera, N.; Mani, L. -Y.; Santostefano, M.; Feriozzi, S.; Quaglia, M.; Boscutti, G.; ...espandi
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