Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium commonly associated with severe infections in hospitalized patients. S. aureus produces many virulence factors leading to local and distant pathological processes. Invasiveness of S. aureus generally induces metastatic infections such as bacteremia, infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, and endophthalmitis. Peritoneal localization from extra-abdominal infection can be a potential consequence of S. aureus infection. Two cases of metastatic peritonitis have been described in patients on peritoneal dialysis with concomitant peripheral vascular catheter-related bloodstream infection. We reported a case of peritoneal metastatic infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis. A 37-year-old man was admitted with fever and chill due to jugular central vascular catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infection caused by MRSA. CVC was placed after switching the patient from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis for scarce adherence to fluid restriction. Detection of MRSA on the peritoneal effluent combined with a total white blood cell count of 554 cells/mm3 prompted the diagnosis of satellite MRSA peritonitis. Antibiotic treatment with daptomycin and simultaneous CVC and peritoneal catheter removal resolved the infectious process. No further metastatic localizations were detected elsewhere. In conclusion, S. aureus can induce metastatic infections far from the site of primary infection. As reported in this case, peritonitis can be secondary to the hematogenous dissemination of S. aureus especially in hospitalized patients having a central line.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Peritonitis due to Hematogenous Dissemination from Central Venous Catheter in a Maintenance Dialysis Patient / Alfano, G.; Frisina, M.; Morisi, N.; Ascione, E.; Fontana, F.; Mori, G.; Cerami, C.; Serra, F.; Cabry, F.; Bonucchi, D.; Gelmini, R.; Guaraldi, G.; Magistroni, R.; Cappelli, G.. - In: CASE REPORTS IN NEPHROLOGY AND DIALYSIS. - ISSN 2296-9705. - 11:3(2021), pp. 281-285. [10.1159/000517143]