Morula cells (MCs) represent the most abundant circulating hemocyte of the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. They are cytotoxic cells involved in the rejection reaction between contacting, genetically incompatible colonies. Upon the recognition of foreign substances, they degranulate and release their content, which contribute to the cell death along the contact borders. A major role in MC-related cytotoxicity is exerted by the enzyme phenoloxidase (PO) that converts polyphenol substrata to quinones which, then, polymerize to form melanins. During this reaction, reactive oxygen species are formed which are the cause of MC-related cytotoxicity. Here, we carried out new analyses to investigate further the nature of MC content and its role in cytotoxicity. Results confirm that PO is located inside MC vacuoles together with arylsulfatase, iron and polyphenols/quinones, the latter probably representing ready-to-use cytotoxic molecules, deriving from the oxidation of DOPA-containing proteins. In addition, small DOPA-containing peptides, called tunichromes, are also present inside MCs. MC degranulation and PO-mediated cytotoxicity are prevented by secretion inhibitors and by H89 and calphostin C. The observation that PO activity is always detectable in MCs in the absence of protease treatment, and its inhibition by sulfites and sulfates, suggest a non-classical pathway of PO modulation in botryllid ascidians.

Insights on cytotoxic cells of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri / Franchi, Nicola; Ballarin, Loriano; Cima, Francesca. - In: INVERTEBRATE SURVIVAL JOURNAL. - ISSN 1824-307X. - 12:(2015), pp. 109-117.

Insights on cytotoxic cells of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri

FRANCHI, NICOLA;
2015

Abstract

Morula cells (MCs) represent the most abundant circulating hemocyte of the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. They are cytotoxic cells involved in the rejection reaction between contacting, genetically incompatible colonies. Upon the recognition of foreign substances, they degranulate and release their content, which contribute to the cell death along the contact borders. A major role in MC-related cytotoxicity is exerted by the enzyme phenoloxidase (PO) that converts polyphenol substrata to quinones which, then, polymerize to form melanins. During this reaction, reactive oxygen species are formed which are the cause of MC-related cytotoxicity. Here, we carried out new analyses to investigate further the nature of MC content and its role in cytotoxicity. Results confirm that PO is located inside MC vacuoles together with arylsulfatase, iron and polyphenols/quinones, the latter probably representing ready-to-use cytotoxic molecules, deriving from the oxidation of DOPA-containing proteins. In addition, small DOPA-containing peptides, called tunichromes, are also present inside MCs. MC degranulation and PO-mediated cytotoxicity are prevented by secretion inhibitors and by H89 and calphostin C. The observation that PO activity is always detectable in MCs in the absence of protease treatment, and its inhibition by sulfites and sulfates, suggest a non-classical pathway of PO modulation in botryllid ascidians.
12
109
117
Insights on cytotoxic cells of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri / Franchi, Nicola; Ballarin, Loriano; Cima, Francesca. - In: INVERTEBRATE SURVIVAL JOURNAL. - ISSN 1824-307X. - 12:(2015), pp. 109-117.
Franchi, Nicola; Ballarin, Loriano; Cima, Francesca
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1252972
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