Since its description in the 19th century, narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) has been considered as a model sleep disorder, and after the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep onset in the disorder, a gateway to understanding REM sleep. The discovery that NT1 is caused by hypocretin/orexin deficiency, together with neurochemical studies of this system, has helped to establish how this neuropeptide regulates the organization of sleep and wake in humans. Current analyses suggest that the main functions of the hypocretin/orexin system are (1) maintenance of wakefulness in the face of moderate sleep deprivation; (2) passive wake promotion, especially in the evening, driven by the circadian clock; (3) inhibition of REM sleep, with possible differential modulating effects on various subcomponents of the sleep-stage, explaining REM sleep dissociation events in NT1. Narcolepsy is also associated with an inability to consolidate sleep, a more complex phenotype that may result from secondary changes or be central to the role of hypocretin in coordinating the activity of other sleep- and wake-promoting systems. Novel technologies, such as the use of deep learning analysis of electroencephalographic signals, is revealing a complex pattern of sleep abnormalities in human narcolepsy that can be used diagnostically. The availability of novel devices measuring sleep 24 h per day also holds promise to provide new insights into how brain electrical activity and muscle tone are regulated by hypocretin.

Sleep Problems in Narcolepsy and the Role of Hypocretin/Orexin Deficiency / Mignot, E.; Zeitzer, J.; Pizza, F.; Plazzi, G.. - 45:(2021), pp. 103-116. [10.1159/000514959]

Sleep Problems in Narcolepsy and the Role of Hypocretin/Orexin Deficiency

Plazzi G.
2021

Abstract

Since its description in the 19th century, narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) has been considered as a model sleep disorder, and after the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep onset in the disorder, a gateway to understanding REM sleep. The discovery that NT1 is caused by hypocretin/orexin deficiency, together with neurochemical studies of this system, has helped to establish how this neuropeptide regulates the organization of sleep and wake in humans. Current analyses suggest that the main functions of the hypocretin/orexin system are (1) maintenance of wakefulness in the face of moderate sleep deprivation; (2) passive wake promotion, especially in the evening, driven by the circadian clock; (3) inhibition of REM sleep, with possible differential modulating effects on various subcomponents of the sleep-stage, explaining REM sleep dissociation events in NT1. Narcolepsy is also associated with an inability to consolidate sleep, a more complex phenotype that may result from secondary changes or be central to the role of hypocretin in coordinating the activity of other sleep- and wake-promoting systems. Novel technologies, such as the use of deep learning analysis of electroencephalographic signals, is revealing a complex pattern of sleep abnormalities in human narcolepsy that can be used diagnostically. The availability of novel devices measuring sleep 24 h per day also holds promise to provide new insights into how brain electrical activity and muscle tone are regulated by hypocretin.
2021
The Orexin System. Basic Science and Role in Sleep Pathology
Editor(s): Steiner, Michel A. (Allschwil) Yanagisawa, Masashi (Tsukuba) Clozel, Martine (Allschwil)
978-3-318-06843-6
S. Karger AG
Sleep Problems in Narcolepsy and the Role of Hypocretin/Orexin Deficiency / Mignot, E.; Zeitzer, J.; Pizza, F.; Plazzi, G.. - 45:(2021), pp. 103-116. [10.1159/000514959]
Mignot, E.; Zeitzer, J.; Pizza, F.; Plazzi, G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1252211
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