Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe complication of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to evaluate incidence, risk factors and case-fatality rate of AKI in patients with COVID-19. Methods We reviewed the health medical records of 307 consecutive patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at the University Hospital of Modena, Italy. Results AKI was diagnosed in 69 out of 307 (22.4%) COVID-19 patients. Stages 1, 2, or 3 AKI accounted for 57.9%, 24.6% and 17.3%, respectively. AKI patients had a mean age of 74.7 +/- 9.9 years. These patients showed higher serum levels of the main markers of inflammation and higher rate of severe pneumonia than non-AKI patients. Kidney injury was associated with a higher rate of urinary abnormalities including proteinuria (0.44 +/- 0.85 vs 0.18 +/- 0.29 mg/mg; P = < 0.0001) and microscopic hematuria (P = 0.032) compared to non-AKI patients. Hemodialysis was performed in 7.2% of the subjects and 33.3% of the survivors did not recover kidney function after AKI. Risk factors for kidney injury were age, male sex, CKD and higher non-renal SOFA score. Patients with AKI had a mortality rate of 56.5%. Adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that COVID-19-associated AKI was independently associated with in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.82; CI 95%, 1.36-17.08) compared to non-AKI patients. Conclusion AKI was a common and harmful consequence of COVID-19. It manifested with urinary abnormalities (proteinuria, microscopic hematuria) and conferred an increased risk for death. Given the well-known short-term sequelae of AKI, prevention of kidney injury is imperative in this vulnerable cohort of patients.
Incidence, risk factors and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with COVID-19 / Alfano, Gaetano; Ferrari, Annachiara; Fontana, Francesco; Mori, Giacomo; Magistroni, Riccardo; Meschiari, Marianna; Franceschini, Erica; Menozzi, Marianna; Cuomo, Gianluca; Orlando, Gabriella; Santoro, Antonella; Digaetano, Margherita; Puzzolante, Cinzia; Carli, Federica; Bedini, Andrea; Milic, Jovana; Coloretti, Irene; Raggi, Paolo; Mussini, Cristina; Girardis, Massimo; Cappelli, Gianni; Guaraldi, Giovanni. - In: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEPHROLOGY. - ISSN 1342-1751. - (2021), pp. N/A-N/A. [10.1007/s10157-021-02092-x]