The first breeding program in the world for durum wheat was conceived in Italy in the early 1900s. Over the decades, pressure exerted by natural and artificial selection could have progressively reduced the genetic diversity of the durum wheat germplasm. In the present study, a large panel of Italian durum wheat accessions that includes landraces, old and modern cultivars was subjected to genotyping using the Illumina iSelect 15K wheat SNP array. The aim was to assess the impact that selection has in shaping Italian durum wheat genetic diversity and to exploit the patterns of genetic diversity between populations to identify molecular signatures of divergence and selection. Relatively small differences in genetic diversity have been observed among accessions, which have been selected and cultivated in Italy over the past 150 years. Indeed, directional selection combined with that operated by farmers/breeders resulted in the increase of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and in changes of the allelic frequencies in DNA regions that control important agronomic traits. Results from this study also show that major well-known genes and/or QTLs affecting plant height (RHT), earliness (VRN, PPD) and grain quality (GLU, PSY, PSD, LYC, PPO, LOX3) co-localized with outlier SNP loci. Interestingly, many of these SNPs fall in genomic regions where genes involved in nitrogen metabolism are. This finding highlights the key role these genes have played in the transition from landraces to modern cultivars. Finally, our study remarks on the need to fully exploit the genetic diversity of Italian landraces by intense pre-breeding activities aimed at introducing a new source of adaptability and resistance in the genetic background of modern cultivars, to contrast the effect of climate change. The list of divergent loci and loci under selection associated with useful agronomic traits represents an invaluable resource to detect new allelic variants for target genes and for guiding new genomic selection programs in durum wheat.

Whole Genome Scan Reveals Molecular Signatures of Divergence and Selection Related to Important Traits in Durum Wheat Germplasm / Taranto, F.; D'Agostino, N.; Rodriguez, M.; Pavan, S.; Minervini, A. P.; Pecchioni, N.; Papa, R.; De Vita, P.. - In: FRONTIERS IN GENETICS. - ISSN 1664-8021. - 11:(2020), pp. 1-22. [10.3389/fgene.2020.00217]

Whole Genome Scan Reveals Molecular Signatures of Divergence and Selection Related to Important Traits in Durum Wheat Germplasm

Pecchioni N.;
2020

Abstract

The first breeding program in the world for durum wheat was conceived in Italy in the early 1900s. Over the decades, pressure exerted by natural and artificial selection could have progressively reduced the genetic diversity of the durum wheat germplasm. In the present study, a large panel of Italian durum wheat accessions that includes landraces, old and modern cultivars was subjected to genotyping using the Illumina iSelect 15K wheat SNP array. The aim was to assess the impact that selection has in shaping Italian durum wheat genetic diversity and to exploit the patterns of genetic diversity between populations to identify molecular signatures of divergence and selection. Relatively small differences in genetic diversity have been observed among accessions, which have been selected and cultivated in Italy over the past 150 years. Indeed, directional selection combined with that operated by farmers/breeders resulted in the increase of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and in changes of the allelic frequencies in DNA regions that control important agronomic traits. Results from this study also show that major well-known genes and/or QTLs affecting plant height (RHT), earliness (VRN, PPD) and grain quality (GLU, PSY, PSD, LYC, PPO, LOX3) co-localized with outlier SNP loci. Interestingly, many of these SNPs fall in genomic regions where genes involved in nitrogen metabolism are. This finding highlights the key role these genes have played in the transition from landraces to modern cultivars. Finally, our study remarks on the need to fully exploit the genetic diversity of Italian landraces by intense pre-breeding activities aimed at introducing a new source of adaptability and resistance in the genetic background of modern cultivars, to contrast the effect of climate change. The list of divergent loci and loci under selection associated with useful agronomic traits represents an invaluable resource to detect new allelic variants for target genes and for guiding new genomic selection programs in durum wheat.
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Whole Genome Scan Reveals Molecular Signatures of Divergence and Selection Related to Important Traits in Durum Wheat Germplasm / Taranto, F.; D'Agostino, N.; Rodriguez, M.; Pavan, S.; Minervini, A. P.; Pecchioni, N.; Papa, R.; De Vita, P.. - In: FRONTIERS IN GENETICS. - ISSN 1664-8021. - 11:(2020), pp. 1-22. [10.3389/fgene.2020.00217]
Taranto, F.; D'Agostino, N.; Rodriguez, M.; Pavan, S.; Minervini, A. P.; Pecchioni, N.; Papa, R.; De Vita, P.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1248161
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