Background: It has recently been suggested that the hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterizing Klinefelter syndrome (KS) might not be due to a steroidogenic dysfunction per se, but mainly to an altered testosterone (T) secretion into the bloodstream. However, the Leydig cell functionality remains incompletely studied in KS, and new markers should be considered. Previous data indicated that chronic hCG stimulation influence the production of both Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-VD) in eugonadal men. Aim of the study: To evaluate INSL3 and 25-VD serum levels, as markers of Leydig cell functionality, in association with sex steroids, after an acute hCG test in a group of KS patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospective, case-control, clinical trial was carried out. KS patients (n=11) and age-matched healthy controls(n=11) provided a basal blood sample (V0) immediately followed by a single intramuscular injection of hCG 5000 IU. Blood samples were taken in the following five days(V1-V5). Results: At baseline, INSL3 was lower in KS patients compared to controls (p=0.007). When adjusted for INSL3 levels, the production of steroids was similar between KS patients and controls. 25-VD was in the insufficient range both in KS patients and controls and was not different (p=0.064). Acute hCG stimulation increased neither INSL3 nor 25-VD in both KS patients and controls. In controls, an inverse correlation was detected between INSL3 levels and body mass index (p=0.020) and waist circumference (p=0.020). Conclusions: INSL3 secretion is independent from steroidogenesis and its production is mostly not influenced by acute hCG stimulation both in KS men and controls. INSL3 serum levels should be considered as a marker of Leydig cell differentiation and numbers rather than steroidogenesis. 25-VD serum levels are also not increased by a single acute hCG administration, which was not able to restore the normal concentrations of 25-VD.

Effects of acute hCG stimulation on serum INSL3 and 25-OH vitamin D in Klinefelter syndrome / Santi, D.; Ivell, R.; Anand-Ivell, R.; De Toni, L.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Pelusi, C.; Pagotto, U.; Belli, S.; M: Granata, A. R.; Roli, L.; Rochira, V.; Trenti, T.; Ferlin, A.; Simoni, M.. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2919. - 8:6(2020), pp. 1720-1727. [10.1111/andr.12851]

Effects of acute hCG stimulation on serum INSL3 and 25-OH vitamin D in Klinefelter syndrome.

D. Santi
;
U. Pagotto;S. Belli;V. Rochira;M. Simoni
2020

Abstract

Background: It has recently been suggested that the hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterizing Klinefelter syndrome (KS) might not be due to a steroidogenic dysfunction per se, but mainly to an altered testosterone (T) secretion into the bloodstream. However, the Leydig cell functionality remains incompletely studied in KS, and new markers should be considered. Previous data indicated that chronic hCG stimulation influence the production of both Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-VD) in eugonadal men. Aim of the study: To evaluate INSL3 and 25-VD serum levels, as markers of Leydig cell functionality, in association with sex steroids, after an acute hCG test in a group of KS patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospective, case-control, clinical trial was carried out. KS patients (n=11) and age-matched healthy controls(n=11) provided a basal blood sample (V0) immediately followed by a single intramuscular injection of hCG 5000 IU. Blood samples were taken in the following five days(V1-V5). Results: At baseline, INSL3 was lower in KS patients compared to controls (p=0.007). When adjusted for INSL3 levels, the production of steroids was similar between KS patients and controls. 25-VD was in the insufficient range both in KS patients and controls and was not different (p=0.064). Acute hCG stimulation increased neither INSL3 nor 25-VD in both KS patients and controls. In controls, an inverse correlation was detected between INSL3 levels and body mass index (p=0.020) and waist circumference (p=0.020). Conclusions: INSL3 secretion is independent from steroidogenesis and its production is mostly not influenced by acute hCG stimulation both in KS men and controls. INSL3 serum levels should be considered as a marker of Leydig cell differentiation and numbers rather than steroidogenesis. 25-VD serum levels are also not increased by a single acute hCG administration, which was not able to restore the normal concentrations of 25-VD.
2020
27-giu-2020
8
6
1720
1727
Effects of acute hCG stimulation on serum INSL3 and 25-OH vitamin D in Klinefelter syndrome / Santi, D.; Ivell, R.; Anand-Ivell, R.; De Toni, L.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Pelusi, C.; Pagotto, U.; Belli, S.; M: Granata, A. R.; Roli, L.; Rochira, V.; Trenti, T.; Ferlin, A.; Simoni, M.. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2919. - 8:6(2020), pp. 1720-1727. [10.1111/andr.12851]
Santi, D.; Ivell, R.; Anand-Ivell, R.; De Toni, L.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Pelusi, C.; Pagotto, U.; Belli, S.; M: Granata, A. R.; Roli, L.; Rochira, V.; Trenti, T.; Ferlin, A.; Simoni, M.
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