A new generation of aircraft piston engines is currently being introduced on the market. These new engines come directly from the huge experience achieved in the motorcycle and automotive racing and production. However direct use of automotive power unit is not advisable, since car engines work mainly in the first quarter of the power output, while sport motorcycles are used in a very "light" way, with the engines that span several times through the entire range of power outputs and rpm. The other problem is fuel. Aircraft spark ignition engine for ultralight and light aircrafts may continue to use automotive gasoline, while diesel engines for light up to cargo aircraft should use jet(A1) and jp4. However, the large experience obtained from racing/high-performance motorcycles, racing/high-performance cars and common rail engines cannot be ignored. Thousand of hours and billion of Euros have been spent for this development and the results are interesting. This paper tries to calculate the future aircraft engine performance from the many experimental data already available on a certain type of combustion chamber or better from a well defined and experimented cylinder unit. On the other side the "lean-thinking" approach to aircraft engine design may be not applicable. The lean thinking approach tends to prefer the time-to-market to the optimization of the engine unit. With engines that will probably stay on the market for 30 years this approach is not convenient. An important optimization during the design phase is possible with modern CAD tools. Mass and cost reduction may easily reach the 30%. On the other side the "brain storming approach" is not applicable to the heavily-constrained aircraft-engine design, where it is common that inapplicable solutions and ideas seem to be the best during the initial phase even to experts. Our research team developed three different families of engines: the first family uses the cylinder unit of a well proven motorcycle engine, which comes directly from racing and was sold in tenth of thousands in the world market. These spark ignition engines have 4 up to 16 cylinders (Figg. 1, 2), with power from 150 HP to 800 HP. This type of engines have very brilliant power to weight ratios with not superlative fuel consumptions. They are conceived for ultralight aircrafts and helicopters, tilt rotor, tilt shaft and tilt motor power lift V/STOL aircrafts. The second cylinder unit comes directly from the 2 valves FIAT 1900 jtd, that is one of the best two valves turbocharged common rail diesel available on the market. These units span from 4 up to 16 cylinders with power outputs from 175 HP (Fig. 3) up to 1000 HP. They run with jp4, jp8 or jet (A1) and can be bolted directly to the original engine mount of existing light aircraft like Cessna 172/182/337 or can be used in new light aircrafts. The third one is an originally conceived twin combustion chamber diesel family with output power from 600 HP to 4000 HP (hybrid engine) originally conceived for the Hercules C130J, ATR42 or ATR72 aircrafts (Figg. 4, 5). Our hybrid engine is composed by two separate engines: the VD007 diesel and a turboshaft. Each engine moves a separate contra rotating propeller. In ordinary flight the turboshaft works as a turbocharger. In this case the rear propeller is nearly idle. During take off or emergency the turboshaft combustion chamber is activated and additional power is available. In this case pitch is given to the rear propeller that outputs additional useful thrust. All these engines use only the thermo-fluid-dynamics and a few parts of the original cylinder unit, since aircraft application need extended modifications and, in many cases, complete redesign. However on all these engines a large amount of experimental, road and reliability data are available. Their direct application in the aircraft field is a plain mistake, since automotive and motorcycle are very different, but it is not the case to discard all this data that are available for free. For this reason innovative simulation methods were used to obtain engine performance envelope, with the possibility to choose the most convenient off-design solution on a certain aircraft, depending on the use and on the requirements. It is also possible to obtain reliability data for the aircraft FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) that controls all these new units. It is important to underline that airborne FADECs should be completely different from ground borne FADECs since in the aircraft application recovery strategies are to be chosen by the well trained pilot, while in the automotive field recovery is usually applied automatically in order to preserve engine integrity. A new method for the determination of the engine performance envelope is introduced as an example on the turbo/hybrid diesel unit for the C130J; this engine is called VD007. This approach has been successfully applied on the small diesel jtd family and also to the spark ignition family. © 2008 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.

A very simple and effective method for off-design simulation of modern aircraft piston engines / Francia, D.; Piancastelli, L.; Renzi, C.. - (2008). ((Intervento presentato al convegno AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit tenutosi a Honolulu, HI, usa nel 2008.

A very simple and effective method for off-design simulation of modern aircraft piston engines

Renzi C.
2008

Abstract

A new generation of aircraft piston engines is currently being introduced on the market. These new engines come directly from the huge experience achieved in the motorcycle and automotive racing and production. However direct use of automotive power unit is not advisable, since car engines work mainly in the first quarter of the power output, while sport motorcycles are used in a very "light" way, with the engines that span several times through the entire range of power outputs and rpm. The other problem is fuel. Aircraft spark ignition engine for ultralight and light aircrafts may continue to use automotive gasoline, while diesel engines for light up to cargo aircraft should use jet(A1) and jp4. However, the large experience obtained from racing/high-performance motorcycles, racing/high-performance cars and common rail engines cannot be ignored. Thousand of hours and billion of Euros have been spent for this development and the results are interesting. This paper tries to calculate the future aircraft engine performance from the many experimental data already available on a certain type of combustion chamber or better from a well defined and experimented cylinder unit. On the other side the "lean-thinking" approach to aircraft engine design may be not applicable. The lean thinking approach tends to prefer the time-to-market to the optimization of the engine unit. With engines that will probably stay on the market for 30 years this approach is not convenient. An important optimization during the design phase is possible with modern CAD tools. Mass and cost reduction may easily reach the 30%. On the other side the "brain storming approach" is not applicable to the heavily-constrained aircraft-engine design, where it is common that inapplicable solutions and ideas seem to be the best during the initial phase even to experts. Our research team developed three different families of engines: the first family uses the cylinder unit of a well proven motorcycle engine, which comes directly from racing and was sold in tenth of thousands in the world market. These spark ignition engines have 4 up to 16 cylinders (Figg. 1, 2), with power from 150 HP to 800 HP. This type of engines have very brilliant power to weight ratios with not superlative fuel consumptions. They are conceived for ultralight aircrafts and helicopters, tilt rotor, tilt shaft and tilt motor power lift V/STOL aircrafts. The second cylinder unit comes directly from the 2 valves FIAT 1900 jtd, that is one of the best two valves turbocharged common rail diesel available on the market. These units span from 4 up to 16 cylinders with power outputs from 175 HP (Fig. 3) up to 1000 HP. They run with jp4, jp8 or jet (A1) and can be bolted directly to the original engine mount of existing light aircraft like Cessna 172/182/337 or can be used in new light aircrafts. The third one is an originally conceived twin combustion chamber diesel family with output power from 600 HP to 4000 HP (hybrid engine) originally conceived for the Hercules C130J, ATR42 or ATR72 aircrafts (Figg. 4, 5). Our hybrid engine is composed by two separate engines: the VD007 diesel and a turboshaft. Each engine moves a separate contra rotating propeller. In ordinary flight the turboshaft works as a turbocharger. In this case the rear propeller is nearly idle. During take off or emergency the turboshaft combustion chamber is activated and additional power is available. In this case pitch is given to the rear propeller that outputs additional useful thrust. All these engines use only the thermo-fluid-dynamics and a few parts of the original cylinder unit, since aircraft application need extended modifications and, in many cases, complete redesign. However on all these engines a large amount of experimental, road and reliability data are available. Their direct application in the aircraft field is a plain mistake, since automotive and motorcycle are very different, but it is not the case to discard all this data that are available for free. For this reason innovative simulation methods were used to obtain engine performance envelope, with the possibility to choose the most convenient off-design solution on a certain aircraft, depending on the use and on the requirements. It is also possible to obtain reliability data for the aircraft FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) that controls all these new units. It is important to underline that airborne FADECs should be completely different from ground borne FADECs since in the aircraft application recovery strategies are to be chosen by the well trained pilot, while in the automotive field recovery is usually applied automatically in order to preserve engine integrity. A new method for the determination of the engine performance envelope is introduced as an example on the turbo/hybrid diesel unit for the C130J; this engine is called VD007. This approach has been successfully applied on the small diesel jtd family and also to the spark ignition family. © 2008 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.
AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit
Honolulu, HI, usa
2008
Francia, D.; Piancastelli, L.; Renzi, C.
A very simple and effective method for off-design simulation of modern aircraft piston engines / Francia, D.; Piancastelli, L.; Renzi, C.. - (2008). ((Intervento presentato al convegno AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit tenutosi a Honolulu, HI, usa nel 2008.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11380/1204058
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