Background: Implementation of high-quality national audits for perinatal mortality are needed to improve the registration of all perinatal deaths and the identification of the causes of death. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a Regional Audit System for Stillbirth in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. Methods: For each stillbirth (≥ 22 weeks of gestation, ≥ 500 g) occurred between January 1, 2014 to December 1, 2016 (n = 332), the same diagnostic workup was performed and a clinical record with data about mother and stillborn was completed. Every case was discussed in a multidisciplinary local audit to assess both the cause of death (ReCoDe classification) and the quality of care. Data were reviewed by the Regional Audit Group. Stillbirth rates, causes of death and the quality of care were established for each case. Results: Total stillbirth rate was 3.09 per 1000 births (332/107,528). Late stillbirth rate was 2.3 per 1000 (251/107,087). Sixteen stillbirths were not registered by the Regional Birth Register. The most prevalent cause of death was placental disorder (33.3%), followed by fetal (17.6%), cord (14.2%) and maternal disorders (7.6%). Unexplained cases were 14%. Compared to local audits, the regional group attributed different causes of death in 17% of cases. At multivariate analysis, infections were associated with early stillbirths (OR 3.38, CI95% 1.62-7.03) and intrapartum cases (OR 6.64, CI95% 2.61-17.02). Placental disorders were related to growth restriction (OR 1.89, CI95% 1.06-3.36) and were more frequent before term (OR 1.86, CI95% 1.11-3.15). Stillbirths judged possibly/probably preventable with a different management (10.9%) occurred more frequently in non-Italian women and were mainly related to maternal disorders (OR 6.64, CI95% 2.61-17.02). Conclusions: Regional Audit System for Stillbirth improves the registration of stillbirth and allows to define the causes of death. Moreover, sub-optimal care was recognized, allowing to identify populations which could benefit from preventive measures.

A regional audit system for stillbirth: A way to better understand the phenomenon / Po, G.; Monari, F.; Zanni, F.; Grandi, G.; Lupi, C.; Facchinetti, F.; Mancini, L.; Lugli, L.; Lanzoni, C.; Sgarbi, L.; Chiossi, C.; Ricchieri, F.; Roberta, C.; Contiero, R.; Garani, G.; Pedriali, M.; Rossi, S.; Fini, S.; Di Bartolo, M.; Radi, D.; Vancini, A.; Donati, A.; Guadalupi, E.; Righetti, F.; Salerno, A.; Cocchi, G.; Morandi, R.; Gabrielli, L.; Graziano, C.; Seri, M.; Caprara, G.; Mario, S. N. C.; Fantuz, F.; Ferlini, F.; Righi, E.; Silvestrini, D.; Foschi, F.; Fieni, S.; Frusca, T.; Ferretti, A.; Galli, L.; Magnani, C.; Silini, E.; Balduzzi, L.; Bellini, M.; Rodolfi, A. M.; Sgarabotto, M. P.; Fragni, G.; Comitini, G.; Bonasoni, M. P.; Fioroni, L.; Rozzi, C.; Tuzio, A.; Vito, I.; Mammoliti, P.; De Ambrosi, E.; Ricci, M.; Bandini, A.; Belosi, C.; Muratori, C.; Zago, S.; Turci, A.; Vitarelli, M.. - In: BMC PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH. - ISSN 1471-2393. - 19:1(2019), pp. 276-280. [10.1186/s12884-019-2432-2]

A regional audit system for stillbirth: A way to better understand the phenomenon

Monari F.;Grandi G.;Lupi C.;Facchinetti F.;Chiossi C.;Ricchieri F.;Di Bartolo M.;Radi D.;Cocchi G.;Fantuz F.;Silvestrini D.;Vito I.;Muratori C.;
2019

Abstract

Background: Implementation of high-quality national audits for perinatal mortality are needed to improve the registration of all perinatal deaths and the identification of the causes of death. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a Regional Audit System for Stillbirth in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. Methods: For each stillbirth (≥ 22 weeks of gestation, ≥ 500 g) occurred between January 1, 2014 to December 1, 2016 (n = 332), the same diagnostic workup was performed and a clinical record with data about mother and stillborn was completed. Every case was discussed in a multidisciplinary local audit to assess both the cause of death (ReCoDe classification) and the quality of care. Data were reviewed by the Regional Audit Group. Stillbirth rates, causes of death and the quality of care were established for each case. Results: Total stillbirth rate was 3.09 per 1000 births (332/107,528). Late stillbirth rate was 2.3 per 1000 (251/107,087). Sixteen stillbirths were not registered by the Regional Birth Register. The most prevalent cause of death was placental disorder (33.3%), followed by fetal (17.6%), cord (14.2%) and maternal disorders (7.6%). Unexplained cases were 14%. Compared to local audits, the regional group attributed different causes of death in 17% of cases. At multivariate analysis, infections were associated with early stillbirths (OR 3.38, CI95% 1.62-7.03) and intrapartum cases (OR 6.64, CI95% 2.61-17.02). Placental disorders were related to growth restriction (OR 1.89, CI95% 1.06-3.36) and were more frequent before term (OR 1.86, CI95% 1.11-3.15). Stillbirths judged possibly/probably preventable with a different management (10.9%) occurred more frequently in non-Italian women and were mainly related to maternal disorders (OR 6.64, CI95% 2.61-17.02). Conclusions: Regional Audit System for Stillbirth improves the registration of stillbirth and allows to define the causes of death. Moreover, sub-optimal care was recognized, allowing to identify populations which could benefit from preventive measures.
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A regional audit system for stillbirth: A way to better understand the phenomenon / Po, G.; Monari, F.; Zanni, F.; Grandi, G.; Lupi, C.; Facchinetti, F.; Mancini, L.; Lugli, L.; Lanzoni, C.; Sgarbi, L.; Chiossi, C.; Ricchieri, F.; Roberta, C.; Contiero, R.; Garani, G.; Pedriali, M.; Rossi, S.; Fini, S.; Di Bartolo, M.; Radi, D.; Vancini, A.; Donati, A.; Guadalupi, E.; Righetti, F.; Salerno, A.; Cocchi, G.; Morandi, R.; Gabrielli, L.; Graziano, C.; Seri, M.; Caprara, G.; Mario, S. N. C.; Fantuz, F.; Ferlini, F.; Righi, E.; Silvestrini, D.; Foschi, F.; Fieni, S.; Frusca, T.; Ferretti, A.; Galli, L.; Magnani, C.; Silini, E.; Balduzzi, L.; Bellini, M.; Rodolfi, A. M.; Sgarabotto, M. P.; Fragni, G.; Comitini, G.; Bonasoni, M. P.; Fioroni, L.; Rozzi, C.; Tuzio, A.; Vito, I.; Mammoliti, P.; De Ambrosi, E.; Ricci, M.; Bandini, A.; Belosi, C.; Muratori, C.; Zago, S.; Turci, A.; Vitarelli, M.. - In: BMC PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH. - ISSN 1471-2393. - 19:1(2019), pp. 276-280. [10.1186/s12884-019-2432-2]
Po, G.; Monari, F.; Zanni, F.; Grandi, G.; Lupi, C.; Facchinetti, F.; Mancini, L.; Lugli, L.; Lanzoni, C.; Sgarbi, L.; Chiossi, C.; Ricchieri, F.; Roberta, C.; Contiero, R.; Garani, G.; Pedriali, M.; Rossi, S.; Fini, S.; Di Bartolo, M.; Radi, D.; Vancini, A.; Donati, A.; Guadalupi, E.; Righetti, F.; Salerno, A.; Cocchi, G.; Morandi, R.; Gabrielli, L.; Graziano, C.; Seri, M.; Caprara, G.; Mario, S. N. C.; Fantuz, F.; Ferlini, F.; Righi, E.; Silvestrini, D.; Foschi, F.; Fieni, S.; Frusca, T.; Ferretti, A.; Galli, L.; Magnani, C.; Silini, E.; Balduzzi, L.; Bellini, M.; Rodolfi, A. M.; Sgarabotto, M. P.; Fragni, G.; Comitini, G.; Bonasoni, M. P.; Fioroni, L.; Rozzi, C.; Tuzio, A.; Vito, I.; Mammoliti, P.; De Ambrosi, E.; Ricci, M.; Bandini, A.; Belosi, C.; Muratori, C.; Zago, S.; Turci, A.; Vitarelli, M.
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