Abstract OBJECTIVES: The present review provides information about which molecules appear to be the main fluorophores in skin and oral mucosa, together with their clinical applications. DESIGN: The MEDLINE database was searched, using "oral mucosa AND fluorophores", "skin AND fluorophores", "epidermal AND fluorophores", "dermal AND fluorophores" and "cutaneous AND fluorophores" as entry terms. We searched the literature following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The level of evidence in the studies was assessed using the Classification of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (CEBM) Levels for Diagnosis. RESULTS: Five papers and 17 were primarily focused on description of fluorophores in oral mucosa and skin Evidence exists that fluorophores of oral mucosa and skin are mainly proteins such as collagen, elastin, keratin and tryptophan. Other possible fluorophores identified are: porphyrins, advanced glycation end products, flavins, lipopigment, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, pheomelanin, eumelanin and components of lipofuscin. Clinical applications of oral mucosal autofluorescence (AF) are related to management of malignant and potentially malignant lesions. In the skin, AF has been used for acne assessment, diagnosis of sweat-gland pathologies, glycemic control and management of malignant lesions and as a marker for skin aging. CONCLUSION: Fluorophores stimulated through AF devices are implied in different physiologic and pathologic processes. AF seems to be useful for several clinical applications, especially in skin department. Because most of the studies show a low level of evidence, further studies are necessary in such a promising and fascinating field.

Which are the main fluorophores in skin and oral mucosa? A review with emphasis on clinical applications of tissue autofluorescence / Giovannacci, I.; Magnoni, C.; Vescovi, P.; Painelli, A.; Tarentini, E.; Meleti, M.. - In: ARCHIVES OF ORAL BIOLOGY. - ISSN 0003-9969. - 105(2019), pp. 89-98. [10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.07.001]

Which are the main fluorophores in skin and oral mucosa? A review with emphasis on clinical applications of tissue autofluorescence

Giovannacci, I.;Magnoni, C.;Tarentini, E.;
2019

Abstract

Abstract OBJECTIVES: The present review provides information about which molecules appear to be the main fluorophores in skin and oral mucosa, together with their clinical applications. DESIGN: The MEDLINE database was searched, using "oral mucosa AND fluorophores", "skin AND fluorophores", "epidermal AND fluorophores", "dermal AND fluorophores" and "cutaneous AND fluorophores" as entry terms. We searched the literature following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The level of evidence in the studies was assessed using the Classification of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (CEBM) Levels for Diagnosis. RESULTS: Five papers and 17 were primarily focused on description of fluorophores in oral mucosa and skin Evidence exists that fluorophores of oral mucosa and skin are mainly proteins such as collagen, elastin, keratin and tryptophan. Other possible fluorophores identified are: porphyrins, advanced glycation end products, flavins, lipopigment, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, pheomelanin, eumelanin and components of lipofuscin. Clinical applications of oral mucosal autofluorescence (AF) are related to management of malignant and potentially malignant lesions. In the skin, AF has been used for acne assessment, diagnosis of sweat-gland pathologies, glycemic control and management of malignant lesions and as a marker for skin aging. CONCLUSION: Fluorophores stimulated through AF devices are implied in different physiologic and pathologic processes. AF seems to be useful for several clinical applications, especially in skin department. Because most of the studies show a low level of evidence, further studies are necessary in such a promising and fascinating field.
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Which are the main fluorophores in skin and oral mucosa? A review with emphasis on clinical applications of tissue autofluorescence / Giovannacci, I.; Magnoni, C.; Vescovi, P.; Painelli, A.; Tarentini, E.; Meleti, M.. - In: ARCHIVES OF ORAL BIOLOGY. - ISSN 0003-9969. - 105(2019), pp. 89-98. [10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.07.001]
Giovannacci, I.; Magnoni, C.; Vescovi, P.; Painelli, A.; Tarentini, E.; Meleti, M.
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