In tardigrades reproduction occurs only through eggs, fertilized or unfertilized, and therefore only through gametes. Tardigrades exploit several reproductive modes, amphimixis, self-fertilization and thelytokous parthenogenesis (both apomixis and automixis). These modes are often in close relationship with the colonized environment. As regards sexuality, tardigrades can be gonochoristic (bisexual or unisexual) or hermaphroditic. The anatomy of the reproductive apparatus of males, females and hermaphrodites and the maturative patterns of male and female germinal elements are presented and discussed, as well as the ultrastructure of spermatozoa and eggs, including their phylogenetic implications. In addition, mating and fertilization patterns, embryonic and post-embryonic development, sexual dimorphism and parental care are considered and discussed. Finally, vegetative reproduction does not occur in tardigrades, and their capability to regenerate is limited to a physiological tissue restoration of a few cells.

Reproduction, Development and Life Cycles / Altiero, Tiziana; Suzuki, Atsushi; Rebecchi, Lorena. - 2:8(2018), pp. 211-247. [10.1007/978-3-319-95702-9_8]

Reproduction, Development and Life Cycles

Altiero, Tiziana;Rebecchi, Lorena
2018

Abstract

In tardigrades reproduction occurs only through eggs, fertilized or unfertilized, and therefore only through gametes. Tardigrades exploit several reproductive modes, amphimixis, self-fertilization and thelytokous parthenogenesis (both apomixis and automixis). These modes are often in close relationship with the colonized environment. As regards sexuality, tardigrades can be gonochoristic (bisexual or unisexual) or hermaphroditic. The anatomy of the reproductive apparatus of males, females and hermaphrodites and the maturative patterns of male and female germinal elements are presented and discussed, as well as the ultrastructure of spermatozoa and eggs, including their phylogenetic implications. In addition, mating and fertilization patterns, embryonic and post-embryonic development, sexual dimorphism and parental care are considered and discussed. Finally, vegetative reproduction does not occur in tardigrades, and their capability to regenerate is limited to a physiological tissue restoration of a few cells.
Water Bears: The Biology of Tardigrades
Ralph O. Schill
978-3-319-95701-2
Springer
SVIZZERA
Reproduction, Development and Life Cycles / Altiero, Tiziana; Suzuki, Atsushi; Rebecchi, Lorena. - 2:8(2018), pp. 211-247. [10.1007/978-3-319-95702-9_8]
Altiero, Tiziana; Suzuki, Atsushi; Rebecchi, Lorena
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1175645
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