Bioapatite represents an important acquisition in the evolution of life, both in the seas and on land. Vertebrates applied calcium-phosphate biominerals to grow their skeletal support and to shape their teeth, while some invertebrates sheltered their soft parts within apatite shells. Conodonts were the first among vertebrates to experiment with skeletal biomineralization of tooth-like elements in their feeding apparatus. Spanning a time record of over 300 million years, they offer a unique tool to test possible variation in bioapatite structure from the experimentation of a very primitive biomineralization type to a more evolute pattern just before going extinct. X-ray microdiffraction carried out through an X-ray micro-diffractometer, integrated with environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with chemical microanalyses (ESEM-EDX), has been applied in this study to investigate conodont element crystal structure throughout the entire stratigraphic range of these organisms. In particular, bioapatite crystallographic cell parameters have been calculated for about one hundred conodont elements ranging from the late Cambrian to the Late Triassic. Resulting data clearly indicate two distinct distribution plots of cell parameters for paraconodonts and euconodonts. In contrast, age, taxonomy, geographic provenance and CAI do not affect the dimension of the bioapatite crystal cells. Conodont bioapatite crystallographic cell parameters have been compared with cell parameters resulting from phosphatic/phosphatized material (ostracodes, brachiopods, bryozoans, and fish teeth) present in the same residues producing conodonts. Resulting values of the cell parameters are, in general, mainly correlated with the type of organisms even if, for some of them, a correlation also with age cannot be completely ruled out. According to our data, primary bioapatite appears to imprint a key signature on fossil crystal-chemistry (crystal structure and major chemical element contents), while the contribution of fossilization and diagenetic processes seems less relevant.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Titolo:||Mineralogy and crystallization patterns in conodont bioapatite from first occurrence (Cambrian) to extinction (end-Triassic)|
|Autore/i:||Medici, Luca; Malferrari, Daniele; Savioli, Martina; Ferretti, Annalisa|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.palaeo.2019.02.024|
|Citazione:||Mineralogy and crystallization patterns in conodont bioapatite from first occurrence (Cambrian) to extinction (end-Triassic) / Medici, Luca; Malferrari, Daniele; Savioli, Martina; Ferretti, Annalisa. - In: PALAEOGEOGRAPHY PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY PALAEOECOLOGY. - ISSN 0031-0182. - -:-(2019), pp. 1-11.|
|Tipologia||Articolo su rivista|
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