The pile dwelling was discovered in 1955 in the valley of the river Menago, just a few hundred meters south of the settlement of Tombola di Cerea (VR). A first excavation was carried out that very year by Francesco Zorzi, director of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale of Verona; the digging has been resumed in 1999 by the Soprintendenza Archeologica of Veneto. The results of these excavations have ascertained that the prehistoric dwelling site was built in a marshy environment. Only some vertical poles and some horizontal beams were preserved, which leads to the hypothesis that there existed a wooden platform on which the sheds were standing. The structural elements of the palafitte find correspondents in others settlements in moist environment from the Middle Bronze Age. The paleogeographic reconstruction of the immediate hinterland confirm the location of the site at the center of the Menago River Paleovalley, an incision a few hundred meters wide and more than ten meters deep, at the base of a thick layer of peat. Previous studies, related to the origin of the deep incision generated by the homonymous spring-line river, mainly refer to geodynamic factors linked to buried tectonic lines, as main motives for the incisions caused by the diversion of Adige breach-channels captured towards the basin of Great Veronese Valleys, which occurred in the late Lateglacial-Holocene age. The analysis of new lithostratigraphies detected on exposures inside the paleovalley, has led to find the presence of a thick and almost continuous filling of organic-peaty sediments, which mark the accretions and the sedimentations verified starting from the basal levels of the pile-dwelling site, depositions that have lasted until fairly recent dates. A series of detailed comparisons made with the terms of the peat-debris-filling sequences of the basin that developed outside the embankments of the near and coeval Fondo Paviani site, led to verify a similar evolution in the growths that mark the upper reaches of these two important alluvio-organic successions. Ultimately, is claimed that the same incidence, of anthropogenic and climatic factors, is involved as the main contributors to the development of the upper fills of the Menago Paleovalley, in correspondence with the pile-dwelling station of the Tombola di Cerea and the embanked site of Fondo Paviani. A great number of ceramic fragments (ca 620 kg) and a smaller amount of bronze, terracotta and bone-horn artefacts had been found. This paper focus on chrono-typological analysis of the archaeological finds, in particular on ceramic of the medium-fine tipe. The goal is the overall classification artefacts, accompanied by a comparison made from materials found in geographically nearbysites. Dendrochronology and radiocarbon allow to date the wooden structures to the second half of the 15th Century cal BC, or in the first decades of the 14th Century cal BC at the latest; the vertical posts come from oak tree felled down once about every ten years. Archaeobotanical study includes pollen analysis carried out on 18 subsamples taken from a core collected in the pile-dwelling settlement and carpological and xilo-anthacological analysis, from 2 samples taken from layers (stratigraphic units) corresponding to the bottom of the core. The results allows to draw the environmental framework of the settlement. The pollen diagram shows that the landscape was rich of wet environments: ponds, wet grassland and hygrophilous wood. The human activity was suggested by a number of anthropogenic indicators: cereal fields, ruderals and weeds. Seeds/fruits and pollen data testify to the presence in the area of edible fruits from plants such as blackthorn, hazelnut, currant, walnut and grapevine. The finds of Baldellia ranuncoloides – a threatened plants today - underline that the archaeobotanical research provide naturalistic information that allow us to better understand the history of plant species becoming rare today. The faunal assemblage is composed by 1995 bone remains. More than 80% of the faunal remains was identified at species level. Domestic animals are the most frequent. Age at death highlights different breeding strategies focused on meat consumption and secondary products. Hunting was barely practiced on wild ungulates (red deer, roe deer, wild boar). Several anthropic marks were identified on the faunal remains emphasizing the use of lithic and metal tools. During the analysis 18 animal hard material artefacts were identified. The good state of preservation allowed us to identify working traces linked to the reduction sequences of the tools.

La palafitta è stata scoperta nel 1955 all'interno della Valle del Menago, poche centinaia di metri a Sud del gruppo di case di Tombola di Cerea (VR). Dopo un primo scavo effettuato nello stesso anno da parte di Francesco Zorzi, direttore del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, le ricerche sono riprese nel 1999 da parte della Soprintendenza Archeologica del Veneto. I risultati di queste ricerche hanno accertato che l'abitato preistorico era posto su palafitta all'interno di un ambiente di tipo palustre. Sono conservati solo dei pali verticali e alcune travi orizzontali, che fanno ipotizzare l'esistenza di una piattaforma lignea. Gli elementi strutturali della palafitta trovano confronti in altri abitati d'ambiente umido della media età del Bronzo. L’inquadramento geomorfologico finalizzato alla ricostruzione paleogeografica mostra che il sito si colloca al centro della Paleovalle del f. Menago, un’incisione larga alcune centinaia di metri e profonda oltre una decina di metri, alla base di un potente spessore di torbe. Gli studi pregressi, relativi all’origine della profonda incisione generata dall’omonimo fiume di risorgiva, si richiamano principalmente a fattori geodinamici legati a linee tettoniche sepolte, quali moventi principali per le incisioni causate dalle diversione di canali di rotta atesini richiamati verso il bacino delle Valli Grandi Veronesi, verificatesi in età tardoglaciale-olocenica antica. L’analisi di nuove litostratigrafie rilevate su esposizioni individuate all’interno della paleovalle, ha condotto a riscontrare la presenza di uno spesso e pressoché continuo riempimento di sedimenti organico-torbosi, che contrassegnano gli accrescimenti e le sedimentazioni verificatesi a partire dai livelli basali della stazione palafitticola, deposizioni che sono perdurate sino a date piuttosto recenti. Una serie di dettagliati confronti operati con i termini delle sequenze di riempimento torboso-detritiche del bacino che si sviluppava all’esterno delle arginature del vicino e coevo sito di Fondo Paviani, ha portato a verificare un’analoga evoluzione negli accrescimenti che contrassegnano i tratti superiori di queste due importanti successioni alluvio-organiche. Si giunge in definitiva a far intervenire una medesima incidenza di fattori antropici e climatici quali concause principali nello sviluppo dei riempimenti sommitali della Paleovalle del Menago, in corrispondenza della stazione palafitticola della Tombola di Cerea e del sito arginato di Fondo Paviani. Lo scavo ha restituito un notevole quantitativo di materiale ceramico (ca. 620 kg) e una percentuale minoritaria di manufatti in bronzo, terracotta e osso-corno. Il presente contributo si concentra sull'analisi crono-tipologica dei materiali focalizzando l'attenzione sulla ceramica di impasto medio-fine ai fini dell'inquadramento complessivo e del confronto con materiale proveniente da siti geograficamente limitrofi. Le datazioni assolute delle strutture lignee, ottenute dall’applicazione della dendrocronologia e dal radiocarbonio, collocano gli elementi verticali di Tombola di Cerea nella seconda metà del XV secolo cal BC, o al più tardi nei primi decenni del XIV secolo cal BC; essi sono stati ottenuti da alberi di quercia abbattuti in momenti successivi, a intervalli di circa 10 anni. Le ricerche archeobotaniche hanno compreso un’analisi palinologica condotta su 18 campioni presi da una carota prelevata all'interno dell’abitato palafitticolo, ed un’analisi carpologica e xilo-antracologica su due campioni provenienti da unità stratigrafiche cronologicamente corrispondenti alla parte basale della carota. L’analisi dei resti vegetali ha permesso di disegnare il quadro ambientale dell’insediamento. Il luogo era ricco di ambienti umidi soprattutto ripariali, con boscaglie d’igrofile e con elofite, con situazioni di prati periodicamente inondati e fossati poco profondi. La presenza antropica è suggerita dalla coltivazioni di cereali e altri indicatori antropogenici. Inoltre i dati carpologici e/o pollinici testimoniano la disponibilità nell’area di varie piante con frutti eduli, come prugnolo, nocciolo, ribes, noce e vite. Il ritrovamento di reperti di Baldellia ranuncoloides -una specie oggi minacciata sottolinea come le ricerche archeobotaniche forniscano informazioni anche dal punto di vista naturalistico utili per conoscere meglio la storia di specie oggi in rarefazione. L’insieme faunistico è composto complessivamente da 1995 reperti ossei. Quasi l’80% dei resti è stato identificato a livello specifico. La maggior parte dei resti appartiene alle specie domestiche: bue, pecora, capra e maiale, seguite da cavallo e cane. La distribuzione delle classi d’età mostra come l’allevamento degli Ungulati fosse finalizzato non solo all’ottenimento di carni, ma anche alla produzione di latte e lana. La pratica della caccia, volta allo sfruttamento di specie di ambiente forestale (cervo, capriolo, cinghiale), appare un’attività marginale. Le tracce di macellazione sono numerose e attestano l’utilizzo di strumenti sia litici sia metallici. Durante lo studio sono stati riconosciuti 18 manufatti in materia dura animale, ben conservati, che hanno permesso l’identificazione delle tracce di lavorazione utili per la ricostruzione delle catene operative.

LA PALAFITTA DI TOMBOLA DI CEREA (VR). LO SCAVO 1999 / Luciano, Salzani; Claudio, Balista; Priscilla, Butta; Nicoletta, Martinelli; Torri, Paola; Bosi, Giovanna; Mazzanti, Marta; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Accorsi, Carla Alberta; Marco, Bertolini; THUN HOHENSTEIN, Ursula. - In: IPOTESI DI PREISTORIA. - ISSN 1974-7985. - 10:(2018), pp. 51-142.

LA PALAFITTA DI TOMBOLA DI CEREA (VR). LO SCAVO 1999.

Paola Torri;Giovanna Bosi;Marta Mazzanti;Anna Maria Mercuri;Carla Alberta Accorsi;THUN HOHENSTEIN, URSULA
2018

Abstract

The pile dwelling was discovered in 1955 in the valley of the river Menago, just a few hundred meters south of the settlement of Tombola di Cerea (VR). A first excavation was carried out that very year by Francesco Zorzi, director of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale of Verona; the digging has been resumed in 1999 by the Soprintendenza Archeologica of Veneto. The results of these excavations have ascertained that the prehistoric dwelling site was built in a marshy environment. Only some vertical poles and some horizontal beams were preserved, which leads to the hypothesis that there existed a wooden platform on which the sheds were standing. The structural elements of the palafitte find correspondents in others settlements in moist environment from the Middle Bronze Age. The paleogeographic reconstruction of the immediate hinterland confirm the location of the site at the center of the Menago River Paleovalley, an incision a few hundred meters wide and more than ten meters deep, at the base of a thick layer of peat. Previous studies, related to the origin of the deep incision generated by the homonymous spring-line river, mainly refer to geodynamic factors linked to buried tectonic lines, as main motives for the incisions caused by the diversion of Adige breach-channels captured towards the basin of Great Veronese Valleys, which occurred in the late Lateglacial-Holocene age. The analysis of new lithostratigraphies detected on exposures inside the paleovalley, has led to find the presence of a thick and almost continuous filling of organic-peaty sediments, which mark the accretions and the sedimentations verified starting from the basal levels of the pile-dwelling site, depositions that have lasted until fairly recent dates. A series of detailed comparisons made with the terms of the peat-debris-filling sequences of the basin that developed outside the embankments of the near and coeval Fondo Paviani site, led to verify a similar evolution in the growths that mark the upper reaches of these two important alluvio-organic successions. Ultimately, is claimed that the same incidence, of anthropogenic and climatic factors, is involved as the main contributors to the development of the upper fills of the Menago Paleovalley, in correspondence with the pile-dwelling station of the Tombola di Cerea and the embanked site of Fondo Paviani. A great number of ceramic fragments (ca 620 kg) and a smaller amount of bronze, terracotta and bone-horn artefacts had been found. This paper focus on chrono-typological analysis of the archaeological finds, in particular on ceramic of the medium-fine tipe. The goal is the overall classification artefacts, accompanied by a comparison made from materials found in geographically nearbysites. Dendrochronology and radiocarbon allow to date the wooden structures to the second half of the 15th Century cal BC, or in the first decades of the 14th Century cal BC at the latest; the vertical posts come from oak tree felled down once about every ten years. Archaeobotanical study includes pollen analysis carried out on 18 subsamples taken from a core collected in the pile-dwelling settlement and carpological and xilo-anthacological analysis, from 2 samples taken from layers (stratigraphic units) corresponding to the bottom of the core. The results allows to draw the environmental framework of the settlement. The pollen diagram shows that the landscape was rich of wet environments: ponds, wet grassland and hygrophilous wood. The human activity was suggested by a number of anthropogenic indicators: cereal fields, ruderals and weeds. Seeds/fruits and pollen data testify to the presence in the area of edible fruits from plants such as blackthorn, hazelnut, currant, walnut and grapevine. The finds of Baldellia ranuncoloides – a threatened plants today - underline that the archaeobotanical research provide naturalistic information that allow us to better understand the history of plant species becoming rare today. The faunal assemblage is composed by 1995 bone remains. More than 80% of the faunal remains was identified at species level. Domestic animals are the most frequent. Age at death highlights different breeding strategies focused on meat consumption and secondary products. Hunting was barely practiced on wild ungulates (red deer, roe deer, wild boar). Several anthropic marks were identified on the faunal remains emphasizing the use of lithic and metal tools. During the analysis 18 animal hard material artefacts were identified. The good state of preservation allowed us to identify working traces linked to the reduction sequences of the tools.
2018
25-feb-2019
10
51
142
LA PALAFITTA DI TOMBOLA DI CEREA (VR). LO SCAVO 1999 / Luciano, Salzani; Claudio, Balista; Priscilla, Butta; Nicoletta, Martinelli; Torri, Paola; Bosi, Giovanna; Mazzanti, Marta; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Accorsi, Carla Alberta; Marco, Bertolini; THUN HOHENSTEIN, Ursula. - In: IPOTESI DI PREISTORIA. - ISSN 1974-7985. - 10:(2018), pp. 51-142.
Luciano, Salzani; Claudio, Balista; Priscilla, Butta; Nicoletta, Martinelli; Torri, Paola; Bosi, Giovanna; Mazzanti, Marta; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Accorsi, Carla Alberta; Marco, Bertolini; THUN HOHENSTEIN, Ursula
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