Background. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean area. In the last decades a northward spread of the parasite has been observed in Italy. This paper describes a VL outbreak in Modena province (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy) between 2012 and 2015. Methods. Retrospective, observational study to evaluate epidemiological, microbiological characteristics, and clinical management of VL in patients referring to Policlinico Modena Hospital. Results. Sixteen cases of VL occurred in the study period. An immunosuppressive condition was present in 81.3%. Clinical presentation included anemia, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Serology was positive in 73.3% of cases, peripheral blood PCR in 92.3%, and bone marrow blood PCR in 100%. Culture was positive in 3/6 cases (50%) and all the isolates were identified as L. infantum by ITS1/ITS2 sequencing. The median time between symptom onset and diagnosis was 22 days (range 6-131 days). All patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin b. 18.8% had a VL recurrence and were treated with miltefosine. Attributable mortality was 6.3%. Conclusions. VL due to L. infantum could determine periodical outbreaks, as the one described; thus it is important to include VL in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin, even in low-endemic areas.

Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Visceral Leishmaniasis Outbreak in a Northern Italian Nonendemic Area: A Retrospective Observational Study / Franceschini, E.; Puzzolante, C.; Menozzi, M.; Rossi, Luna; Bedini, A.; Orlando, G.; Gennari, W.; Meacci, M.; Rugna, G.; Carra, E.; Codeluppi, M.; Mussini, C.. - In: BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL. - ISSN 2314-6133. - 2016:(2016), pp. 1-8. [10.1155/2016/6481028]

Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Visceral Leishmaniasis Outbreak in a Northern Italian Nonendemic Area: A Retrospective Observational Study

Franceschini, E.;Puzzolante, C.;Menozzi, M.;Rossi, Luna;Bedini, A.;Orlando, G.;Carra, E.;Mussini, C.
2016

Abstract

Background. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean area. In the last decades a northward spread of the parasite has been observed in Italy. This paper describes a VL outbreak in Modena province (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy) between 2012 and 2015. Methods. Retrospective, observational study to evaluate epidemiological, microbiological characteristics, and clinical management of VL in patients referring to Policlinico Modena Hospital. Results. Sixteen cases of VL occurred in the study period. An immunosuppressive condition was present in 81.3%. Clinical presentation included anemia, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. Serology was positive in 73.3% of cases, peripheral blood PCR in 92.3%, and bone marrow blood PCR in 100%. Culture was positive in 3/6 cases (50%) and all the isolates were identified as L. infantum by ITS1/ITS2 sequencing. The median time between symptom onset and diagnosis was 22 days (range 6-131 days). All patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin b. 18.8% had a VL recurrence and were treated with miltefosine. Attributable mortality was 6.3%. Conclusions. VL due to L. infantum could determine periodical outbreaks, as the one described; thus it is important to include VL in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin, even in low-endemic areas.
2016
23-nov-2016
2016
1
8
Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Visceral Leishmaniasis Outbreak in a Northern Italian Nonendemic Area: A Retrospective Observational Study / Franceschini, E.; Puzzolante, C.; Menozzi, M.; Rossi, Luna; Bedini, A.; Orlando, G.; Gennari, W.; Meacci, M.; Rugna, G.; Carra, E.; Codeluppi, M.; Mussini, C.. - In: BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL. - ISSN 2314-6133. - 2016:(2016), pp. 1-8. [10.1155/2016/6481028]
Franceschini, E.; Puzzolante, C.; Menozzi, M.; Rossi, Luna; Bedini, A.; Orlando, G.; Gennari, W.; Meacci, M.; Rugna, G.; Carra, E.; Codeluppi, M.; Mussini, C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11380/1155134
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