This review examines the contribution of the literature to the controversial issue of diagnostic procedures in women affected by coronary artery disease (CAD), on which a large number of papers have been published. It has been reported that cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases represent the first cause of death in the New as well as in the Old World, Italy included. Some studies are conditioned by bias; one of these is the Framingham study, in which angina was reported and defined only clinically and for a relatively young age range, as a benign condition in women. Angiographic studies, such as the CASS, considered a super elected group of women referred to the hemodynamic laboratory for chest pain, which in the female gender often has atypical characteristics. In our opinion, it is mandatory to take into account: 1) what chest pain really means in women; 2) the fact that there are gender differences: women have a different biological and hormonal status, lifestyle, and perception of the disease; 3) that there is a different approach of the physicians to a woman with possible or suspected CAD. We suggest, therefore, a more peculiar and individualized diagnostic approach to women suspected as having CAD. This approach should also take the pre-test probability of disease into consideration. The first investigational step we recommend is the exercise ECG test; should this be unfeasible or not interpretable, an imaging and/or pharmacological stress test is advisable. In case of positive first test results, coronary angiography should be performed. Â© 2003 CEPI Srl.
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|Data di pubblicazione:||2003|
|Titolo:||Gender differences in diagnostic procedures|
|Autori:||Modena, Maria Grazia; Nuzzo, Annachiara; Rossi, Rosario|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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