The porphyrias are a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders due to an inherited (but in some forms the disturbance may also be acquired) enzymatic deficiency in the metabolic pathway of heme biosynthesis. The variable degree of block in the heme biosynthetic pathway due to the enzyme deficiency results in accumulation of different metabolic intermediates, whose toxicity is responsible for the peculiar (cutaneous and/or neurovisceral) clinical pictures observed in each of these diseases. According to the clinical features, the porphyrias are classified as “acute” (or neuropsychic) [characterized by acute neurovisceral crises (the acute porphyric attack) involving the autonomic and/or central nervous system, but also the liver and the kidney] and “on acute” (or dermatological) (mostly presenting with cutaneous lesions, due to photosensitivity). The acute porphyrias are often misdiagnosed diseases: the acute porphyric attack may in fact mimic many other more common medical and neuropsychiatric conditions; its delayed diagnosis and treatment (or its inappropriate treatment) may result in a fatal outcome. For these reasons, many different specialists, such as surgeons, psychiatrists, gastroenterologists, neurologists, emergency physicians and dermatologists may be variably involved in the diagnostic process, especially in those cases presenting with acute and life-threatening clinical features. An early and definitive diagnosis is mandatory to improve outcomes and to assure that potentially harmful drugs are avoided. To date, the availability of an adequate treatment has significantly improved the outcome of the acute porphyric attacks, so the knowledge about the management of these events may be relevant for the physicians working in internal and emergency medicine units.
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|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Titolo:||The Acute Porphyric Attack: A Difficult Diagnosis for a Potential Lethal Event in Emergency Medicine|
|Autori:||Cuoghi, Chiara; Marcacci, Matteo; Ventura, Paolo|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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