Hepcidin, the iron hormone, is regulated by a number of stimulatory and inhibitory signals. The cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3, CREB3L3, mediates hepcidin response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study we asked whether hepcidin response to ER stress also requires the SMAD1/5/8 pathway that has a major role in hepcidin regulation in response to iron and other stimuli. We analyzed hepcidin mRNA expression and promoter activity in response to ER stressors in HepG2 cells in the presence of the BMP type I receptor inhibitor LDN-193189, mutated hepcidin promoter or siRNA against different SMAD proteins. We then used a similar approach in vivo in wild-type, Smad1/5 or Creb3l3 -/- animals undergoing ER stress. In vitro, LDN-193189 prevented hepcidin mRNA induction by different ER stressors. Seemingly, mutation of a BMP-responsive element in the hepcidin promoter prevented ER stress-mediated upregulation. Moreover, in vitro silencing of SMAD proteins by siRNA, in particular SMAD5, blunted hepcidin response to ER stress. On the contrary, hepcidin induction by ER stress was maintained when using antibodies against canonical BMP receptor ligands. In vivo, hepcidin was induced by ER stress and prevented by LDN-193189. In addition, in Smad1/5 knock-out mice, ER stress was unable to induce hepcidin expression. Finally, in Creb3l3 knock-out mice, in response to ER stress, SMAD1/5 were correctly phosphorylated and hepcidin induction was still appreciable, although to a lesser extent as compared to control mice. In conclusion, our study indicates that hepcidin induction by ER stress involves the central regulatory SMAD1/5 pathway.
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|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Titolo:||The SMAD pathway is required for hepcidin response during endoplasmic reticulum stress|
|Autori:||Canali, Susanna; Vecchi, Chiara; Garuti, Cinzia; Montosi, Giuliana; Babitt, Jodie L; Pietrangelo, Antonello|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1210/en.2016-1258|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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