Acute stress can trigger cardiovascular events and disease. The earthquake is an ‘‘ideal’’ natural experiment for acute and chronic stress, with impact mainly on the cardiovascular system. On May 20th and 29th, 2012, two earthquakes of magnitude 5.9! to 6.4! on the Richter scale, hit the province of Modena and Reggio Emilia, an area of the north-center of Italy never considered at seismic risk. The purpose of our study was to assess whether there were gender-specific differences in stress-induced incidence of cardiovascular events and age of patients who arrived at the Emergency Departments (ED) of the three main teaching hospitals of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Global access of patients, divided in relation to age, gender, and diagnosis was compared with that one detected in the same departments and in the same interval of time in 2010. The data collected were relative to consecutive cases derived by retrospective chart and acute cardiovascular events were classified according to ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision). A total of 1,401 accesses were recorded in the year of earthquake versus 530 in 2010 ( p £ 0.05), with no statistically significant differences in number of cases and mean age in relation to gender, despite the number of women exceeded that of men in 2012 (730 vs. 671); the opposite occurred, in 2010 (328 vs. 202). The gender analysis of 2012 showed a prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs 177 vs. 73, p £ 0.03) in men, whereas women presented more strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) (90 vs. 94, p £ 0.05), atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 49, p £ 0.05), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE; 64 vs. 9, p £ 0.05), panic attacks (124 vs. 26, p £ 0.03), aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 18, p £ 0.05), TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy (10 vs. 0, p £ 0.05), and DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p £ 0.03). The gender analysis of 2010 showed no difference in number of accesses and age, with higher incidence of ACS in men (130 vs. 34, p £ 0.05) and aspecific chest pain in women (42 vs. 5, p £ 0.05). The analysis between 2012 and the standard period (2010) showed women recurring to ED in larger number with more panic attacks (124 vs. 3, p £ 0.01), more atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 40, p £ 0.01) and, as a possible consequence, more TIAs and strokes (190 vs. 25, p £ 0.005), more TakoTsubo (10 vs. 0, p £ 0.05), DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p £ 0.05), and aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 5, p £ 0.01). The difference between men’s accesses to ED was less striking, but in 2012 men reported more panic attacks (26 vs. none, p £ 0.05), more atrial fibrillations, TIAs, and strokes (49 vs. 13, p £ 0.05 and 94 vs. 18, p £ 0.03). In conclusion, clinical (stress induced) events recorded during and immediately after the 2012 earthquakes were quite different between women and men, although the pathophysiological mechanism was probably the same, consisting acute sympathetic nervous activation, with elevation of blood pressure and heart rate, endothelial dysfunction, platelet and hemostatic activation, increased blood viscosity, and hypercoagulation. Women, in our observation, appeared to be more sensitive and responsive to acute stress, although men also appeared to suffer from stress effects when compared with a standard period, which, nevertheless, reflects in our population the most common epidemiology of gender difference in ED accesses for cardiovascular events.
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|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Titolo:||Gender Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress|
|Autori:||Modena, Mg; Pettorelli, Daniele; Lauria, Giulia; Erminio, Mauro; Martinotti, Valentina|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1089/biores.2017.0004|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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