Fatty liver, which frequently coexists with necroinflammatory and fibrotic changes, may occur in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic infections due to either hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These three pathologic conditions are associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this multidisciplinary clinical review, we aim to discuss the ever-expanding wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence supporting a key role of fatty liver in the development of T2D and CVD in patients with NAFLD and in those with HCV or HIV infections. For each of these three common diseases, the epidemiological features, pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical implications of the presence of fatty liver in predicting the risk of incident T2D and CVD are examined in depth. Collectively, the data discussed in this updated review, which follows an innovative comparative approach, further reinforce the conclusion that the presence of fatty/inflamed/fibrotic liver might be a shared important determinant for the development of T2D and CVD in patients with NAFLD, HCV or HIV. This review may also open new avenues in the clinical and research arenas and paves the way for the planning of future, well-designed prospective and intervention studies.

Fatty liver is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease-Evidence from three different disease models: NAFLD, HCV and HIV / Lonardo, Amedeo; Ballestri, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Romagnoli, Dante; Zona, Stefano; Targher, Giovanni. - In: WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY. - ISSN 1007-9327. - STAMPA. - 22:44(2016), pp. 9674-9693. [10.3748/wjg.v22.i44.9674]

Fatty liver is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease-Evidence from three different disease models: NAFLD, HCV and HIV

BALLESTRI, Stefano;GUARALDI, Giovanni;NASCIMBENI, Fabio;ROMAGNOLI, Dante;ZONA, Stefano;
2016

Abstract

Fatty liver, which frequently coexists with necroinflammatory and fibrotic changes, may occur in the setting of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic infections due to either hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These three pathologic conditions are associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this multidisciplinary clinical review, we aim to discuss the ever-expanding wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence supporting a key role of fatty liver in the development of T2D and CVD in patients with NAFLD and in those with HCV or HIV infections. For each of these three common diseases, the epidemiological features, pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical implications of the presence of fatty liver in predicting the risk of incident T2D and CVD are examined in depth. Collectively, the data discussed in this updated review, which follows an innovative comparative approach, further reinforce the conclusion that the presence of fatty/inflamed/fibrotic liver might be a shared important determinant for the development of T2D and CVD in patients with NAFLD, HCV or HIV. This review may also open new avenues in the clinical and research arenas and paves the way for the planning of future, well-designed prospective and intervention studies.
2016
22
44
9674
9693
Fatty liver is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease-Evidence from three different disease models: NAFLD, HCV and HIV / Lonardo, Amedeo; Ballestri, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Romagnoli, Dante; Zona, Stefano; Targher, Giovanni. - In: WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY. - ISSN 1007-9327. - STAMPA. - 22:44(2016), pp. 9674-9693. [10.3748/wjg.v22.i44.9674]
Lonardo, Amedeo; Ballestri, Stefano; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Romagnoli, Dante; Zona, Stefano; Targher, Giovanni
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