The discovery of hepcidin in 2000 and the subsequent unprecedented explosion of research and discoveries in the iron field have dramatically changed our understanding of human disorders of iron metabolism. Today, hereditary hemochromatosis, the paradigmatic iron-loading disorder, is recognized as an endocrine disease due to the genetic loss of hepcidin, the iron hormone produced by the liver. This syndrome is due to unchecked transfer of iron into the bloodstream in the absence of increased erythropoietic needs and its toxic effects in parenchymatous organs. It is caused by mutations that affect any of the proteins that help hepcidin to monitor serum iron, including HFE and, in rarer instances, transferrin-receptor 2 and hemojuvelin, or make its receptor ferroportin, resistant to the hormone. In Caucasians, C282Y HFE homozygotes are numerous, but they are only predisposed to hemochromatosis; complete organ disease develops in a minority, due to alcohol abuse or concurrent genetic modifiers that are now being identified. HFE gene testing can be used to diagnose hemochromatosis in symptomatic patients, but analyses of liver histology and full gene sequencing are required to identify patients with rare, non-HFE forms of the disease. Due to the central pathogenic role of hepcidin, it is anticipated that nongenetic causes of hepcidin loss (eg, end-stage liver disease) can cause acquired forms of hemochromatosis. The mainstay of hemochromatosis management is still removal of iron by phlebotomy, first introduced in 1950s, but identification of hepcidin has not only shed new light on the pathogenesis of the disease and the approach to diagnosis, but etiologic therapeutic applications from these advances are now foreseen.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Titolo:||Genetics, Genetic Testing, and Management of Hemochromatosis: 15 Years since Hepcidin|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2015.06.045|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000365087700011|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-84942340966|
|Codice identificativo Pubmed:||26164493|
|Citazione:||Genetics, Genetic Testing, and Management of Hemochromatosis: 15 Years since Hepcidin / Pietrangelo, Antonello. - In: GASTROENTEROLOGY. - ISSN 0016-5085. - ELETTRONICO. - 149:5(2015), pp. 1240-1251.e4.|
|Tipologia||Articolo su rivista|
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