BACKGROUND: There is insufficient population-based data on group B streptococcus (GBS) late-onset disease (LOD). Risk factors and routes of GBS transmission are poorly understood. METHODS: A prospective, cohort study was conducted to collect incidence data on LOD and evaluate GBS infections over an 8-year period (2003-2010). Starting from January 2007, maternal rectovaginal and breast milk cultures were routinely collected on confirmation of the LOD diagnosis to assess maternal GBS culture status. RESULTS: The incidence rate of LOD was 0.32 per 1000 live births (1.4 and 0.24 per 1000 live births for preterm and term newborns, respectively). The registered cases of LOD (n = 100) were classified as sepsis (n = 57), meningitis (n = 36), or focal infection (n = 7). Thirty neonates were preterm (2 had recurrent infection); 68 were term. Four infants died (3 early preterm, 1 term). At the time the LOD diagnosis was confirmed, 3 (6%) of 53 mothers had GBS mastitis, and 30 (64%) of 47 carried GBS at the rectovaginal site. Early (7-30 days) LOD presentation was associated with neonatal brain lesions or death (odds ratio: 0.96 [95% confidence interval: 0.93-0.99]). Intrapartum antibiotic exposure was significantly associated with mild (12 of 22) rather than severe (11 of 45; P = .03) LOD. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm neonates had the highest rates of LOD and mortality. Most mothers carried GBS at the time of the LOD diagnosis, whereas 6% had mastitis. Intrapartum antibiotics were associated both with delayed presentation of symptoms and milder LOD. Pediatrics 2013;131:e361-e368
Early neonatal mortality has remained high and unchanged for many years in Tanzania, a resource-limited country. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB), a novel educational program using basic interventions to enhance delivery room stabilization/resuscitation, has been developed to reduce the number of these deaths. METHODS: Master trainers from the 3 major referral hospitals, 4 associated regional hospitals, and 1 district hospital were trained in the HBB program to serve as trainers for national dissemination. A before (n = 8124) and after (n = 78 500) design was used for implementation. The primary outcomes were a reduction in early neonatal deaths within 24 hours and rates of fresh stillbirths (FSB). RESULTS: Implementation was associated with a significant reduction in neonatal deaths (relative risk [RR] with training 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-0.65; P ≤.0001) and rates of FSB (RR with training 0.76; 95% CI 0.64-0.90; P = .001). The use of stimulation increased from 47% to 88% (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.82-1.90; P ≤.0001) and suctioning from 15% to 22% (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.33-1.46; P ≤.0001) whereas face mask ventilation decreased from 8.2% to 5.2% (RR 0.65; 95% CI 0.60- 0.72; P ≤ .0001). Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Titolo:||Group b streptococcus late-onset disease: 2003-2010|
|Autore/i:||Berardi, Alberto; Rossi, Cecilia; Lugli, Licia; Creti, Roberta; Reggiani, Maria Letizia Bacchi; Lanari, Marcello; Memo, Luigi; Pedna, Maria Federica; Venturelli, Claudia; Perrone, Enrica; Ciccia, Matilde; Tridapalli, Elisabetta; Piepoli, Marina; Contiero, Raffaella; Ferrari, Fabrizio|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1231|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000314355100003|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-84873406282|
|Codice identificativo Pubmed:||23296441|
|Tipologia||Articolo su rivista|
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