BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as sunitinib and pazopanib display their efficacy in a variety of solid tumours. However, their use in therapy is limited by the lack of evidence about the ability to induce cell death in cancer cells. Our aim was to evaluate cytotoxic effects induced by sunitinib and pazopanib in 5637 and J82 bladder cancer cell lines. METHODS: Cell viability was tested by MTT assay. Autophagy was evaluated by western blot using anti-LC3 and anti-p62 antibodies, acridine orange staining and FACS analysis. Oxygen radical generation and necrosis were determined by FACS analysis using DCFDA and PI staining. Cathepsin B activation was evaluated by western blot and fluorogenic Z-Arg-Arg-AMC peptide. Finally, gene expression was performed using RT-PCR Profiler array. RESULTS: We found that sunitinib treatment for 24 h triggers incomplete autophagy, impairs cathepsin B activation and stimulates a lysosomal-dependent necrosis. By contrast, treatment for 48 h with pazopanib induces cathepsin B activation and autophagic cell death, markedly reversed by CA074-Me and 3-MA, cathepsin B and autophagic inhibitors, respectively. Finally, pazopanib upregulates the α-glucosidase and downregulates the TP73 mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: Our results showing distinct cell death mechanisms activated by different TKIs, provide the biological basis for novel molecularly targeted approaches.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Titolo:||Pazopanib and sunitinib trigger autophagic and non autophagic death of bladder tumor cells.|
|Autori:||Matteo Santoni; Consuelo Amantini; Maria Beatrice Morelli; Sonia Liberati; Valerio Farfariello; Massimo Nabissi; Bonfili Laura; Anna Maria Eleuteri; Matteo Mozzicafreddo; Luciano Burattini; Rossana Berardi; Stefano Cascinu; Giorgio Santoni|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1038/bjc.2013.420|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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