Ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), particularly children. If diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is diagnosed late, the child risks cerebral edema, permanent neurological damage or even death. There have been only few studies of DKA in Italy. From January-May 2014 a nation-wide observational, retrospective study of DKA at diabetes onset was done by the Pediatric Diabetology Study Group (PDSG) of the Italian Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (ISPED), involving 76 Italian centers. DKA was defined using ISPAD criteria; 7457 new cases of T1DM were recruited from mainland Italy and the island of Sicily and 770 from Sardinia, in the period 2004-2013. On the mainland and in Sicily, DKA at diabetes onset was about 32.9% (95% CI 31.8-34.0%), and there was 6.6% (95% CI 6.02-7.20%) of the severe form. Mild and severe DKA risk was significantly higher in children aged 0-4 years; no significant temporal trend was found in the study period. Patients living in Sardinia or having a firstdegree relative with T1DM were at significantly lower risk of DKA at diabetes onset. In the ten-year study period three children died of DKA at onset and four suffered permanent neurological lesions. From November 2011-April 2012 the PDSG conducted a retrospective study based on a sample of 2025 patients with T1DM, aged 0-18 years, involving 29 national centers for pediatric diabetes. The incidence of DKA was 2.4% (IC 95% 1.8-3.1), with children older than ten years at significantly higher risk, probably due to shortages of insulin. Multiple analysis showed a higher risk of DKA in those using a rapid-acting insulin analog and in those with high HbA1c. Young mothers and low levels of education were also associated with DKA. In conclusion, although a wide network of specialized home pediatricians and pediatric diabetes centers is spread across the country, the incidence of DKA at diabetes onset is still high. Further social and health-system efforts are needed to boost awareness of this risk and to reduce damages and costs related to the complication.

Epidemiologia della chetoacidosi diabetica in Italia / Cherubini, Valentino; Gesuita, R.; Sternardi, S.; Ferrito, L.; Lenzi, L.; Iannilli, A.; Piccini, B.; Skrami, E.; Nicolucci, A.; Pintaudi, B.; Toni, S.; Lera, R.; De Luna, L.; Kienberger, B.; Ferrito, L.; Gualtieri, A.; Zecchino, C.; Piccino, E.; Ortolani, F.; Zucchini, S.; Maltoni, G.; Pasquino, B.; Reinstadler, P.; Prandi, E.; Zattoni, V.; Gallo, F.; Morganti, G.; Guerraggio, L.; Ripoli, C.; Frongia, M.; Pusceddu, P.; La Loggia, A.; Scanu, P.; Cardinale, G.; Ponzi, G.; Tomaselli, L. G.; Rapisarda, V.; Citriniti, F.; Soprani, T.; Tumini, S.; Lazzaro, N.; De Donno, V.; Banin, P.; Toni, S.; Lenzi, L.; Mainetti, B.; Coccioli, M. S.; D'Annunzio, G.; Minuto, N.; Montani, E.; Maccioni, R.; Marongiu, U.; Beccaria, L.; Bruzzese, M.; Mammì, F.; Pardi, D.; Lombardo, F.; Ventrici, C.; Scaramazza, A.; Ferrari, M.; Bonfanti, R.; Rigamonti, A.; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Predieri, Barbara; Iafusco, D.; Confetto, S.; Zanfardino, A.; Prisco, F.; Franzese, A.; De Nitto, E.; Cadario, F.; Milia, A.; Piredda, G.; Mereu, L.; Soro, M.; Correddu, A.; Pipia, A.; Monciotti, C.; Cardella, F.; De Berardinis, F.; Santoro, G.; Chiari, G.; Berioli, M. G.; Federico, G.; Zanette, G.; Marsciani, A.; Pedini, A.; Patera, I. P.; Schiaffini, R.; Bitti, M.; Lidano, R.; Pietrosanti, S.; Delvecchio, M.; Trada, M.; Marinaro, A.; Meloni, G.; Galero, A.; Fichera, G.; Bulciolu, P.; Rabbone, I.; Ignaccolo, G.; Cauvin, V.; Franceschi, R.; Faleschini, E.; Tornese, G.; Salvatoni, A.; Cardani, R.; Maffeis, C.; Marigliano, M.; Sabbion, A.; Arnaldi, C.. - In: GIDM. GIORNALE ITALIANO DI DIABETOLOGIA E METABOLISMO. - ISSN 1593-6104. - 34:(2014), pp. 110-116.

Epidemiologia della chetoacidosi diabetica in Italia

IUGHETTI, Lorenzo;PREDIERI, Barbara;
2014

Abstract

Ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), particularly children. If diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is diagnosed late, the child risks cerebral edema, permanent neurological damage or even death. There have been only few studies of DKA in Italy. From January-May 2014 a nation-wide observational, retrospective study of DKA at diabetes onset was done by the Pediatric Diabetology Study Group (PDSG) of the Italian Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (ISPED), involving 76 Italian centers. DKA was defined using ISPAD criteria; 7457 new cases of T1DM were recruited from mainland Italy and the island of Sicily and 770 from Sardinia, in the period 2004-2013. On the mainland and in Sicily, DKA at diabetes onset was about 32.9% (95% CI 31.8-34.0%), and there was 6.6% (95% CI 6.02-7.20%) of the severe form. Mild and severe DKA risk was significantly higher in children aged 0-4 years; no significant temporal trend was found in the study period. Patients living in Sardinia or having a firstdegree relative with T1DM were at significantly lower risk of DKA at diabetes onset. In the ten-year study period three children died of DKA at onset and four suffered permanent neurological lesions. From November 2011-April 2012 the PDSG conducted a retrospective study based on a sample of 2025 patients with T1DM, aged 0-18 years, involving 29 national centers for pediatric diabetes. The incidence of DKA was 2.4% (IC 95% 1.8-3.1), with children older than ten years at significantly higher risk, probably due to shortages of insulin. Multiple analysis showed a higher risk of DKA in those using a rapid-acting insulin analog and in those with high HbA1c. Young mothers and low levels of education were also associated with DKA. In conclusion, although a wide network of specialized home pediatricians and pediatric diabetes centers is spread across the country, the incidence of DKA at diabetes onset is still high. Further social and health-system efforts are needed to boost awareness of this risk and to reduce damages and costs related to the complication.
34
110
116
Epidemiologia della chetoacidosi diabetica in Italia / Cherubini, Valentino; Gesuita, R.; Sternardi, S.; Ferrito, L.; Lenzi, L.; Iannilli, A.; Piccini, B.; Skrami, E.; Nicolucci, A.; Pintaudi, B.; Toni, S.; Lera, R.; De Luna, L.; Kienberger, B.; Ferrito, L.; Gualtieri, A.; Zecchino, C.; Piccino, E.; Ortolani, F.; Zucchini, S.; Maltoni, G.; Pasquino, B.; Reinstadler, P.; Prandi, E.; Zattoni, V.; Gallo, F.; Morganti, G.; Guerraggio, L.; Ripoli, C.; Frongia, M.; Pusceddu, P.; La Loggia, A.; Scanu, P.; Cardinale, G.; Ponzi, G.; Tomaselli, L. G.; Rapisarda, V.; Citriniti, F.; Soprani, T.; Tumini, S.; Lazzaro, N.; De Donno, V.; Banin, P.; Toni, S.; Lenzi, L.; Mainetti, B.; Coccioli, M. S.; D'Annunzio, G.; Minuto, N.; Montani, E.; Maccioni, R.; Marongiu, U.; Beccaria, L.; Bruzzese, M.; Mammì, F.; Pardi, D.; Lombardo, F.; Ventrici, C.; Scaramazza, A.; Ferrari, M.; Bonfanti, R.; Rigamonti, A.; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Predieri, Barbara; Iafusco, D.; Confetto, S.; Zanfardino, A.; Prisco, F.; Franzese, A.; De Nitto, E.; Cadario, F.; Milia, A.; Piredda, G.; Mereu, L.; Soro, M.; Correddu, A.; Pipia, A.; Monciotti, C.; Cardella, F.; De Berardinis, F.; Santoro, G.; Chiari, G.; Berioli, M. G.; Federico, G.; Zanette, G.; Marsciani, A.; Pedini, A.; Patera, I. P.; Schiaffini, R.; Bitti, M.; Lidano, R.; Pietrosanti, S.; Delvecchio, M.; Trada, M.; Marinaro, A.; Meloni, G.; Galero, A.; Fichera, G.; Bulciolu, P.; Rabbone, I.; Ignaccolo, G.; Cauvin, V.; Franceschi, R.; Faleschini, E.; Tornese, G.; Salvatoni, A.; Cardani, R.; Maffeis, C.; Marigliano, M.; Sabbion, A.; Arnaldi, C.. - In: GIDM. GIORNALE ITALIANO DI DIABETOLOGIA E METABOLISMO. - ISSN 1593-6104. - 34:(2014), pp. 110-116.
Cherubini, Valentino; Gesuita, R.; Sternardi, S.; Ferrito, L.; Lenzi, L.; Iannilli, A.; Piccini, B.; Skrami, E.; Nicolucci, A.; Pintaudi, B.; Toni, S.; Lera, R.; De Luna, L.; Kienberger, B.; Ferrito, L.; Gualtieri, A.; Zecchino, C.; Piccino, E.; Ortolani, F.; Zucchini, S.; Maltoni, G.; Pasquino, B.; Reinstadler, P.; Prandi, E.; Zattoni, V.; Gallo, F.; Morganti, G.; Guerraggio, L.; Ripoli, C.; Frongia, M.; Pusceddu, P.; La Loggia, A.; Scanu, P.; Cardinale, G.; Ponzi, G.; Tomaselli, L. G.; Rapisarda, V.; Citriniti, F.; Soprani, T.; Tumini, S.; Lazzaro, N.; De Donno, V.; Banin, P.; Toni, S.; Lenzi, L.; Mainetti, B.; Coccioli, M. S.; D'Annunzio, G.; Minuto, N.; Montani, E.; Maccioni, R.; Marongiu, U.; Beccaria, L.; Bruzzese, M.; Mammì, F.; Pardi, D.; Lombardo, F.; Ventrici, C.; Scaramazza, A.; Ferrari, M.; Bonfanti, R.; Rigamonti, A.; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Predieri, Barbara; Iafusco, D.; Confetto, S.; Zanfardino, A.; Prisco, F.; Franzese, A.; De Nitto, E.; Cadario, F.; Milia, A.; Piredda, G.; Mereu, L.; Soro, M.; Correddu, A.; Pipia, A.; Monciotti, C.; Cardella, F.; De Berardinis, F.; Santoro, G.; Chiari, G.; Berioli, M. G.; Federico, G.; Zanette, G.; Marsciani, A.; Pedini, A.; Patera, I. P.; Schiaffini, R.; Bitti, M.; Lidano, R.; Pietrosanti, S.; Delvecchio, M.; Trada, M.; Marinaro, A.; Meloni, G.; Galero, A.; Fichera, G.; Bulciolu, P.; Rabbone, I.; Ignaccolo, G.; Cauvin, V.; Franceschi, R.; Faleschini, E.; Tornese, G.; Salvatoni, A.; Cardani, R.; Maffeis, C.; Marigliano, M.; Sabbion, A.; Arnaldi, C.
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