The clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by possible development of both liver and extrahepatic disorders. The tropism of HCV for the lymphoid tissue is responsible for several immune-mediated disorders; a poly-oligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, commonly observed in a high proportion of patients with HCV infection, are responsible for the production of different autoantibodies and immune-complexes, such as mixed cryoglobulins. These serological alterations may characterize a variety of autoimmune or neoplastic diseases. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis due to small-vessel deposition of circulating mixed cryoglobulins is the prototype of HCV-driven immune-mediated and lymphoproliferative disorders; interestingly, in some cases the disease may evolve to frank malignant lymphoma. In addition, HCV shows an oncogenic potential as suggested by several clinico-epidemiological and laboratory studies; in addition to hepatocellular carcinoma that represents the most frequent HCV-related malignancy, a causative role of HCV has been largely demonstrated in a significant percentage of patients with isolated B-cells non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The same virus may be also involved in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer, a rare neoplastic condition that may complicate HCV-related thyroid involvement. Patients with HCV infection are frequently asymptomatic or may develop only hepatic alteration, while a limited but clinically relevant number can develop one or more autoimmune and/or neoplastic disorders. Given the large variability of their prevalence among patients' populations from different countries, it is possible to hypothesize a potential role of other co-factors, i.e., genetic and/or environmental, in the pathogenesis of HCV-related extra-hepatic diseases.

Hepatitis C virus syndrome: A constellation of organ- and non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancer / Ferri, Clodoveo; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, Michele; Fallahi, Poupak; Piluso, Alessia; Antonelli, Alessandro; Zignego, Anna Linda. - In: WORLD JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY. - ISSN 1948-5182. - STAMPA. - 7:3(2015), pp. 327-343. [10.4254/wjh.v7.i3.327]

Hepatitis C virus syndrome: A constellation of organ- and non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancer

FERRI, Clodoveo;SEBASTIANI, Marco;Giuggioli, Dilia;COLACI, Michele;
2015

Abstract

The clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by possible development of both liver and extrahepatic disorders. The tropism of HCV for the lymphoid tissue is responsible for several immune-mediated disorders; a poly-oligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, commonly observed in a high proportion of patients with HCV infection, are responsible for the production of different autoantibodies and immune-complexes, such as mixed cryoglobulins. These serological alterations may characterize a variety of autoimmune or neoplastic diseases. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis due to small-vessel deposition of circulating mixed cryoglobulins is the prototype of HCV-driven immune-mediated and lymphoproliferative disorders; interestingly, in some cases the disease may evolve to frank malignant lymphoma. In addition, HCV shows an oncogenic potential as suggested by several clinico-epidemiological and laboratory studies; in addition to hepatocellular carcinoma that represents the most frequent HCV-related malignancy, a causative role of HCV has been largely demonstrated in a significant percentage of patients with isolated B-cells non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The same virus may be also involved in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer, a rare neoplastic condition that may complicate HCV-related thyroid involvement. Patients with HCV infection are frequently asymptomatic or may develop only hepatic alteration, while a limited but clinically relevant number can develop one or more autoimmune and/or neoplastic disorders. Given the large variability of their prevalence among patients' populations from different countries, it is possible to hypothesize a potential role of other co-factors, i.e., genetic and/or environmental, in the pathogenesis of HCV-related extra-hepatic diseases.
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Hepatitis C virus syndrome: A constellation of organ- and non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancer / Ferri, Clodoveo; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, Michele; Fallahi, Poupak; Piluso, Alessia; Antonelli, Alessandro; Zignego, Anna Linda. - In: WORLD JOURNAL OF HEPATOLOGY. - ISSN 1948-5182. - STAMPA. - 7:3(2015), pp. 327-343. [10.4254/wjh.v7.i3.327]
Ferri, Clodoveo; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, Michele; Fallahi, Poupak; Piluso, Alessia; Antonelli, Alessandro; Zignego, Anna Linda
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11380/1066372
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