In this work polymorphs of α-aminobenzylpenicillin (ampicillin), a β-lactamic antibiotic, were prepared and investigated by several experimental and theoretical methods. Amorphous monohydrate and three crystalline forms, the trihydrate, the crystal form I and the crystal form II, were investigated by FT-IR and micro-Raman. Also data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and hot-stage Raman spectroscopy are reported. Finally, quantum mechanical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT) to assist the assignment of spectroscopic experimental bands. For the first time, the ampicillin molecule in its zwitterionic form was studied at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level and the corresponding theoretical vibrational spectra were computed. In fact, ampicillin in the crystal is in zwitterionic form and concentrations of this same form are quite relevant in solutions at physiological pH. Experimental and theoretical results allowed identification of specific features for polymorph characterization. Bands typical of the different polymorphs are identified both in IR and Raman spectra: in particular in the NH stretching region (IR), in the amide I+δNH region (both techniques), in the 1520-1490cm(-1) region (IR), in the 1320-1300cm(-1) and 1280-1220cm(-1) (IR), in the 1200-1170cm(-1) (Raman), in the amide V region (IR), and, finally, in the 715-640cm(-1) and 220-200cm(-1) (Raman). Interconversion among different polymorphs was investigated by hot-stage Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis, clarifying the complex pattern of transformations undergone as a function of temperature and heating rate. In particular, DSC scans show how the trihydrate crystals transform into anhydrous forms on heating. Finally, stability tests demonstrated, after a two years period, that no transformation or degradation of the polymorphs occurred.
Characterization of polymorphic ampicillin forms / Baraldi, Cecilia; Tinti, A; Ottani, S; Gamberini, Maria Cristina. - In: JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS. - ISSN 0731-7085. - ELETTRONICO. - 100(2014), pp. 329-340.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Titolo:||Characterization of polymorphic ampicillin forms|
|Autore/i:||Baraldi, Cecilia; Tinti, A; Ottani, S; Gamberini, Maria Cristina|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2014.08.021|
|Codice identificativo ISI:||WOS:000343021100043|
|Codice identificativo Scopus:||2-s2.0-84921903637|
|Codice identificativo Pubmed:||25194347|
|Citazione:||Characterization of polymorphic ampicillin forms / Baraldi, Cecilia; Tinti, A; Ottani, S; Gamberini, Maria Cristina. - In: JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS. - ISSN 0731-7085. - ELETTRONICO. - 100(2014), pp. 329-340.|
|Tipologia||Articolo su rivista|
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