Candida albicans is the most prevalent human fungal pathogen associated with biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices. Under this form, Candida represents an infectious reservoir difficult to eradicate and possibly responsible for systemic, often lethal infections. Currently, no information is available on the occurrence and persistence of pathogenic viruses within C. albicans biofilm. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Coxsackievirus type B5 (CVB5) can be encompassed in Candida biofilm, retain their infectivity and then be released. Thus, cell-free virus inocula or HSV-1-infected cells were added to 24 h-old fungal biofilm in tissue culture plates; 48 h later, the biofilm was detached by washing and energetic scratching and the presence of virus in the rescued material was end-point titrated on VERO cells. Planktonic Candida cultures and samples containing only medium were run in parallel as controls. We found that both HSV-1 and CVB5 free virus particles, as well as HSV-1 infected cells remain embedded in the biofilm retaining their infectivity. As a second step, the influence of biofilm on virus sensitivity to sodium hypochlorite and to specific neutralizing antibodies was investigated. The results showed that virus encompassment in fungal biofilm reduces virus sensitivity to chemical inactivation but does not affect antibody neutralization. Overall, these data provide the first in vitro evidence that viruses can be encompassed within Candida biofilm and then be released. Thus, it may be speculated that Candida biofilm can be a reservoir of viruses too, posing a further health risk.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Titolo:||Human pathogenic viruses are retained in and released by Candida albicans biofilm in vitro|
|Autori:||Mazaheritehrani, Elham; Sala, Arianna; Orsi, Carlotta Francesca; Neglia, Rachele Giovanna; Morace, Giulia; Blasi, Elisabetta; Cermelli, Claudio|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo su rivista|
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