This research was undertaken in the aim of identifying and getting deeper knoowledge into materials and pigments used in cosmestics concerning the contest of the phoenician settlements in Sicilian territory. In fact, about the typologies of cosmetics in use among the Phoenicians, little is known. On this subject, generally references come from bibliographic latin sources: in antiquity, women preferred to paint white their face, red lips and cheeks, yellowish eyes and black to sorround their look (Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia; Ovidius, De medicamine faciei feminae). An interesting aspect of this research is that just one paper is known on Punic cosmetics. In the Museo Archeologico Regionale “Antonino Salinas” (Palermo, Sicily) an important collection of unguentaries coming from the town of Selinunte is preserved. Some of them, finely crafted, come from the sanctuary of Demetra Malophoros, some unguentaries come from the acropolis and some more from the necropolis (dating from the 6th to the 5th century b. C). The sacred area, excavated by Cavallari (1818) and Salinas (1903-1905), have provided a great amount of archaeological materials. In the area where once the acropolis rose, the remains show a mixed village, Phoenician and Greek. In this study, the findings from Salinas were considered, as well as some others from the Museum Conte Agostino Pepoli (Trapani), from the Museum Baglio Anselmi (Marsala) and from the museum of Mozia. The number of glass and fictile unguentaries, pyxis and alabastra examined were large: 142 items from Salinas, 210 from Mozia, 14 from Pepoli and 117 from Baglio Anselmi. This research has completed the one carried out on 210 samples from the Museum of Whitaker Foundation from Mozia, a merely phoenician –punic settlement.[2,3] The samples were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. The IR spectra were acquired with a spectrophotometer VERTEX 70 (Bruker) FT-IR, equipped with a detector deuterium triglycine sulphate (DTGS). The setting parameters were: resolution 4 cm-1, spectral range 4000-600 cm-1, number of scans 32. ATR spectra were recorded using an Elmer Golden-Gate accessory. The micro-Raman spectrometer used in this case was a Labram Model from the Jobin Yvon-Horiba with a spatial resolution of 1 µm and with quick detection ability as a result of the CCD detector 1024x256 pixels cooled to -70°C by the Peltier effect. The spectral resolution was 1 cm-1. The exciting wavelength was the 632.8 nm red line of a He-Ne laser. Generally the samples were presented as inorganic powders of different colors: white, black, blue and red. Though the samples came from different museums, they were considered togheter, since they belonged all to the Phoenician culture and coming from Trapani archaeological sites. The white samples were of two types. The first one was mainly composed of gypsum and anhydrite mixtures (e.g. Inv No 1680, 1663, 1753); the other type (e.g. pyxes Inv N° 1393, 1451) was composed of fully carbonated cerussite, gypsum and litharge. The second kind of cosmetic corresponded to the most famous Greek cosmetic, called psymition, used by women to white the skin. The first type suggested that, for the same use, alternative materials, cheaper and most readily available, could be employed in the past. The black powders, usually used to outline the eyes, were mostly given by carbon obtained from vegetable combustion (e.g. Inv. N° 1566, 2314, 4313) or, sometimes, from bone combustion (animal charcoal) as for the samples Inv. N° 3140, 1761. A single blue powder (Inv N° 42259) was consisted by the famous Egyptian blue (CaCuSi4O10). The love for the red color by Phoenician is evident from the great number of powders of this color, probably used to give color to the cheeks or lips. A wide variety of red minerals was found. In many cases the presence of hematite (e.g. Inv N° 2309, 2689, 4269) was detected. A large number of pink and red powders containing cinnabar (unguentaries Inv N° 1393, 6480-1, 34396) was observed. No frequent and very interesting is in fact the HgS finding powder into alabastra (e.g. Inv. N° 7317/7, 1255), a holder typically used to contain ointments. Another red pigment was identified as red lead (e.g. Inv N° 1606). Finally, a singular discovery was the presence of red lead chromates chrocoite and phoenicochroite, two very rare minerals (e.g. sample Inv. N° 805, 1-98-2, 4386). In fact, they have never been previously attested for cosmetic use, and also rarely attested in paintings before the end of the 18th century when it began to be produced industrially. The high number of Phoenicians samples taken into examination has allowed to understand the typology of raw materials used by the Phoenicians settled in Sicilian contexts. In this study affects the materials heterogeneity used for the make-up, even for example in comparison to the Roman culture, for which there has come a greater number of samples (sites such as Pompeii, Herculaneum and Oplontis were analyzed by our research group),[5-7] but which revealed a palette less extensive and less refined. In particular, this study identified the use of many kind of red pigments, also very rareof mineral origin. References  A. Huqet al., Combined, Appl. Phys. A, 2006, 83, 253–256.  G. Freguglia, C. Baraldi, M.C. Gamberini, P. Toti, P. Baraldi, PRIN07- Colors and balms in antiquity: from the chemical study to the knowledge of technologies in cosmetics, painting and medicine. Aboca, Sansepolcro (Arezzo, Italy), 2-3th December 2010, p. 50-51.  C. Baraldi, G. Freguglia, M.C. Gamberini, P. Baraldi, 5-8th September 2011, RAA2011, Parma, 2011, p. 103-104.  R.J.H. Clark. Chimie, 2002, 5, 7–20.  P. Baraldi, C. Fagnano, C. Baraldi, M.C. Gamberini, Automata, 2006, 1, 49.  M.C.Gamberini, C. Baraldi, F. Palazzoli, E. Ribechini, P. Baraldi, Vib. Spectrosc. 2008, 47/2, 82.  E. Van Elslande, M.C. Gamberini, C. Baraldi and P. Walter, An overview of the Raman studies on cosmetic powders from Pompeii, 14-18th September 2009. RAA2009, Bilbao, 2009.
Phoenicians preferred red pigments: micro-Raman investigation on some cosmetics found in Sicily archaeological sites / Baraldi, Cecilia; Giada, Freguglia; Elsa Van, Elslande; Pamela, Toti; Baraldi, Pietro; Gamberini, Maria Cristina; Claudia, Pelosi. - STAMPA. - 0(2013), pp. 54-55. ((Intervento presentato al convegno RAA2013: 7th International Congress an the Application of Raman spectroscopy in Art and Archaeology tenutosi a Ljubljana (Slovenia) nel 2-6 September 2013.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Autore/i:||Baraldi, Cecilia; Giada, Freguglia; Elsa Van, Elslande; Pamela, Toti; Baraldi, Pietro; Gamberini, Maria Cristina; Claudia, Pelosi|
|Titolo:||Phoenicians preferred red pigments: micro-Raman investigation on some cosmetics found in Sicily archaeological sites|
|Nome del convegno:||RAA2013: 7th International Congress an the Application of Raman spectroscopy in Art and Archaeology|
|Luogo del convegno:||Ljubljana (Slovenia)|
|Data del convegno:||2-6 September 2013|
|Citazione:||Phoenicians preferred red pigments: micro-Raman investigation on some cosmetics found in Sicily archaeological sites / Baraldi, Cecilia; Giada, Freguglia; Elsa Van, Elslande; Pamela, Toti; Baraldi, Pietro; Gamberini, Maria Cristina; Claudia, Pelosi. - STAMPA. - 0(2013), pp. 54-55. ((Intervento presentato al convegno RAA2013: 7th International Congress an the Application of Raman spectroscopy in Art and Archaeology tenutosi a Ljubljana (Slovenia) nel 2-6 September 2013.|
|Tipologia||Abstract in Atti di Convegno|
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