The Mozia Museum conserves some funerary vessels coming from the isle’s archaic necropolis, commercial Greek, Phoenician and Etruscan amphorae, a rich collection of black varnish jars with red images of Birgi necropolis and also materials coming from Mozia Tofet and houses. Also jewels and weapons, amulets, scarabs and objects with original captions engraved are found, as well as cosmetic and surgical instruments and fragments of inscribed stones coming from the Lilibeo necropolis. From the collection of the Mozia Museum about 200 samples from the Unguentaria and Balsamaria were taken, some having large amount of residue, others a very small one. A preliminary spectroscopic analysis was carried out on these samples by using Micro-Raman and SERS techniques and the results of a first series are reported in this study. The preliminary analyses carried out with the Raman techniques have shown the presence of a variety of compounds.The white powders, among the more abundant ones, present in lead pyxes, were made of Cerussite PbCO3 coming from a complete carbonatation of hydrocerussite PbCO3*Pb(OH)2. This is compatible with the high chronology of the samples: instead, hydrocerussite has been identified in Pompeii samples. Its presence can be a clear indicator of cosmesis, since it is well known that its use in mural painting is not advisable. At the time, cerussa (lead white) was employed as a foundation. Other white substances are calcite and aragonite: the first could come from the ground where the unguentaria were found, the second one could derive from ground sea shells.Litharge, an oxide present in many containers, could derive from the alteration of cerussa, or from a proper addition, whether the yellow colour had a special meaning for the population of the site.The container NI 3149 had a gray powder composed of Carbon mixed with calcium phosphate. This could have been a bone-black or could come from cinerary urn.Among the red pigments found there are cinnabar and hematite: the latter can be found as a natural compound or as a thermodegradation product from goethite. The presence of red lead chromates crocoite and phoenicocroite, two rare minerals, in a particularly precious unguentary is a singular discovery.With the SERS technique it has been possible to record spectra relative to red dyes. However, these spectra do not correpond to compounds coming from madder, purple and kermes. Other comparisons are outstanding. In comparison with other sites, such as Pompeii, Herculaneum and Oplontis, this cosmetic powders exhibit a wider range of materials.
STUDY OF ANCIENT PHOENICIAN REMAINS / Freguglia, Giada; Baraldi, Cecilia; Gamberini, Maria Cristina; P., Toti; Baraldi, Pietro. - STAMPA. - 0:(2010), pp. 50-51. (Intervento presentato al convegno PRIN07– COLORS AND BALMS IN ANTIQUITY: FROM THE CHEMICAL STUDY TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF TECHNOLOGIES IN COSMETICS, PAINTING AND MEDICINE tenutosi a Aboca Azienda, Sansepolcro (Arezzo, Italy) nel 2-3 December 2010).