Background Buoyant, turbulent convective heat transfer around cylindrical rods arranged in bundles is a technically relevant heat transfer configuration which finds application in steam generators, cooling of reactor core fuel assemblies and heat exchangers in general. Most of the research performed so far considered forced convection conditions on vertical rod bundles, corresponding for example to the configuration of a nuclear reactor primary loop. Fewer works have focused on the effect of buoyancy, with or without an external source of momentum. In their experimental investigation, Hallinan and Viskanta  employed a thermosyphon loop to determine the average heat transfer coefficients for water under natural circulation conditions in a tube bundle containing twenty-one tubes; their work is mainly focused on the favorable effect of grid spacers on heat transfer enhancement. El Genk et al. performed experiments of upflow- and downflow-forced turbulent and laminar convection, natural convection and buoyancy-assisted combined convection of water in a uniformly heated square lattice of seven  and nine  rod bundles with variable pitch-to-diameter ratio, Reynolds and Rayleigh number. They proposed heat transfer correlations and concluded that the rod arrangement only negligibly affects the overall Nusselt number in both forced and natural convection regimes. Concerning the numerical modeling of this class of flows, only very recent works resort to the Large Eddy Simulation , and even less frequently, to the Direct Numerical Simulation . This is largely due to the geometric complexity of the flow domain and the difficulties related to the adoption of numerical techniques allowing for sufficiently accurate results.
Buoyancy-driven turbulent convection in a bundle of vertical heated cylinders / Angeli, D.; Stalio, E.. - (2015). (Intervento presentato al convegno 15th European Turbulence Conference, ETC 2015 tenutosi a nld nel 2015).