Background: Osteopenia and osteoporosis, as well as hypogonadism, are common findings in men with HIV- infection and they occur at a younger age than healthy subjects. The reduction of BMD is due to both HIV-related and HIV-unrelated factors. Previous studies suggest that T deficiency is not or poorly associated with reduced BMD in HIV context. On the other hand, estrogens are consid- ered more important than androgens for bone health in general population, but data about their role in HIV- infected men are still scanty. Objective: To investigate the relationship between BMD and circulating sex steroids assessed by Liquid Chro- matography tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a cohort of young/middle aged HIV-infected men. Methods: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on 233 consecutive HIV-infected male patients with ongo- ing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), attend- ing the Multidisciplinary Metabolic Clinic of Modena. Body composition and BMD at total body, lumbar spine (L1 to L4) and total hip were measured using a Hologic QDR-2000 densitometer (DXA). LC-MS/MS was used for hormonal assays. Statistical analysis: The nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test was used for group comparisons because variables were not normally distributed at the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Correlations were performed using linear regression models. Results: Two hundred and thirty-three HIV-infected patients were enrolled (mean age 45.29 ! 5.33 years) with average duration of HIV-infection of 190.8 ! 102.8 months. Eight patients (3.4%) had hypogonadism, defined as total T serum levels below 300 ng/dL. Considering results at DXA examination, BMD was normal in 36.5% and reduced in 63.5% (55.8% osteopenia, 7.7% osteoporo- sis). Both total T and E2 did not significantly differ com- paring patients with normal BMD to patients with reduced BMD. Body and lumbar BMD did not show any significant difference between eugonadal patients and patients with low T and/or low E2, while both femoral BMD and femoral T-score were significantly higher in patients with E2 above 20 pg/mL than in those with E2 below 20 pg/mL (p = 0.043 and p = 0.033, respectively). At linear and step- wise multiple regression analyses, BMD was positively associated with total lean mass (R2 = 0.154, p < 0.0001); apart from it, neither T nor E2 correlated with BMD and T- score at any site. Conclusion: Classical factors associated to BMD as E2 and T seem to be less relevant in this model of male osteoporo- sis. Other specific HIV-related factors, such as changes in body composition and consequent lipodystrophy, could be more deeply involved than sex steroids as potential mecha- nisms in bone loss in this setting. Finally, we confirm the high prevalence of reduced BMD in young/middle aged HIV-infected men, representing one of the clinical hallmarks of the premature aging process related to HIV infection.

Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) are poorly associated to the reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) in Young/Middle Aged Men with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) / De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, Federica; Bertani, D.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Santi, D.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, Vincenzo. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2919. - 6:Suppl. 2(2018), pp. 67-68. ((Intervento presentato al convegno 10th Congress of the European Academy of Andrology tenutosi a Budapest, Hungary nel 11-13 October, 2018..

Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) are poorly associated to the reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) in Young/Middle Aged Men with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

S. De Vincentis;M. C. Decaroli;C. Diazzi;MORINI, FEDERICA;D. Santi;G. Guaraldi;V. Rochira.
2018

Abstract

Background: Osteopenia and osteoporosis, as well as hypogonadism, are common findings in men with HIV- infection and they occur at a younger age than healthy subjects. The reduction of BMD is due to both HIV-related and HIV-unrelated factors. Previous studies suggest that T deficiency is not or poorly associated with reduced BMD in HIV context. On the other hand, estrogens are consid- ered more important than androgens for bone health in general population, but data about their role in HIV- infected men are still scanty. Objective: To investigate the relationship between BMD and circulating sex steroids assessed by Liquid Chro- matography tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a cohort of young/middle aged HIV-infected men. Methods: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study on 233 consecutive HIV-infected male patients with ongo- ing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), attend- ing the Multidisciplinary Metabolic Clinic of Modena. Body composition and BMD at total body, lumbar spine (L1 to L4) and total hip were measured using a Hologic QDR-2000 densitometer (DXA). LC-MS/MS was used for hormonal assays. Statistical analysis: The nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test was used for group comparisons because variables were not normally distributed at the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Correlations were performed using linear regression models. Results: Two hundred and thirty-three HIV-infected patients were enrolled (mean age 45.29 ! 5.33 years) with average duration of HIV-infection of 190.8 ! 102.8 months. Eight patients (3.4%) had hypogonadism, defined as total T serum levels below 300 ng/dL. Considering results at DXA examination, BMD was normal in 36.5% and reduced in 63.5% (55.8% osteopenia, 7.7% osteoporo- sis). Both total T and E2 did not significantly differ com- paring patients with normal BMD to patients with reduced BMD. Body and lumbar BMD did not show any significant difference between eugonadal patients and patients with low T and/or low E2, while both femoral BMD and femoral T-score were significantly higher in patients with E2 above 20 pg/mL than in those with E2 below 20 pg/mL (p = 0.043 and p = 0.033, respectively). At linear and step- wise multiple regression analyses, BMD was positively associated with total lean mass (R2 = 0.154, p < 0.0001); apart from it, neither T nor E2 correlated with BMD and T- score at any site. Conclusion: Classical factors associated to BMD as E2 and T seem to be less relevant in this model of male osteoporo- sis. Other specific HIV-related factors, such as changes in body composition and consequent lipodystrophy, could be more deeply involved than sex steroids as potential mecha- nisms in bone loss in this setting. Finally, we confirm the high prevalence of reduced BMD in young/middle aged HIV-infected men, representing one of the clinical hallmarks of the premature aging process related to HIV infection.
10th Congress of the European Academy of Andrology
Budapest, Hungary
11-13 October, 2018.
De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, Federica; Bertani, D.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Santi, D.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, Vincenzo
Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) are poorly associated to the reduction of bone mineral density (BMD) in Young/Middle Aged Men with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) / De Vincentis, S.; Decaroli, M. C.; Diazzi, C.; Morini, Federica; Bertani, D.; Fanelli, F.; Mezzullo, M.; Santi, D.; Pagotto, U.; Guaraldi, G.; Rochira, Vincenzo. - In: ANDROLOGY. - ISSN 2047-2919. - 6:Suppl. 2(2018), pp. 67-68. ((Intervento presentato al convegno 10th Congress of the European Academy of Andrology tenutosi a Budapest, Hungary nel 11-13 October, 2018..
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