The use of microorganisms in agriculture for the biological control of plant pathogens is increasing, due to a rising awareness among citizens for sustainability of agricultural production systems, coupled with a deeper knowledge of the relationships among the microbial communities in agricultural environments. In the EU, 54 microorganisms are currently approved for a possible use in plant protection and many more are under approval/authorization. Regulating the use of microbials in agriculture is a challenge: several countries regulate them as chemical pesticides, without taking into consideration their biological properties. Challenges might refer to: i) identification, characterization and biological properties; ii) toxicology and environmental risks; iii) residues of microorganisms and their metabolites on food crops; iv) level of efficacy. Microorganisms may pose risks to the environment, as they are able to survive, proliferate and disseminate. Registration data requirements for biocontrol agents are currently concerning their toxicity, pathogenicity and/or infectivity. Environmental safety is assessed according a case-by-case evaluation. Mensik & Scheepmaker (2007) proposed a procedure, adopted by the OECD. The decision scheme starts with data on microbial characterization, followed by assessment on contamination/exposure in soil/surface water, together with fate and behavior of inoculum. Environmental toxicology is done on terrestrial and aquatic organisms, checking any adverse effects and, eventually, mitigation options. The environmental risk assessment terminates in “RISK ACCEPTABLE” or “RISK NOT ACCEPTABLE”. The regulatory authority may, nonetheless, consider those biocontrol agents, whose risk is assessed as “not acceptable”, if mitigation of adverse effects are possible or their use will replace a toxic pesticide.
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Titolo:||BIOSAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS RELATED TO THE USE OF BACTERIAL BIOCONTROL AGENTS IN CROP PROTECTION|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.4454/jpp.v98i4sup.3778|
|Nome del convegno:||XXII Convegno Nazionale della Società Italiana di Patologia Vegetale|
|Luogo del convegno:||Roma|
|Data del convegno:||19-22 Settembre 2016|
|Tipologia||Relazione in Atti di Convegno|
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