Human milk represents the most suitable pattern of nutrients to meet the physiological requirements of the young infant and exclusive breast feeding is recommended up to 6 months of age. When breast feeding is not possible, infant formulas are often used as substitutes for human milk, hence, an accurate knowledge of their composition, also in term of trace elements, is essential to understand if the nutrient requirements of the infant fed with formulas are adequate. Essential trace elements play a relevant role in growth and development. Although they are required only in small amounts, the intake may not always be adequate, and their amount in formula composition has received insufficient attention. Moreover, infant formula and human milk may hold toxic elements as a result of environment pollution or food processing. The main objective of this study is to compare the total concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Se, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in a representative sample of infant starting (0-6 months) formulas consumed in Italy (n=35) with just as many breast milk samples of healthy lactating women from Modena (Italy) and collected on 30 day postpartum. The element concentrations were determined by ICP-MS after microwave digestion. The levels of essential elements in infant formulas were within min/max of recommended values established by the European directives. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were detected in some infant formulas, although none in amounts that could represent a health hazard for the consumer. As expected Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn are significantly higher in all investigated formulas compared to breast milk, due to fortification associated with their poor absorption from artificial products. Growing evidence of negative effects on cognitive development from excessive Mn intake suggests a reconsideration on the real need to fortify commercial human-milk substitutes to high concentrations, in order to ensure infant health
CONCENTRATIONS OF ESSENTIAL AND TOXIC ELEMENTS IN HUMAN MILK AND INFANT FORMULAS / Bargellini, Annalisa; Venturelli, Francesco; Casali, Maria Elisabetta; Ferrari, Angela; Reghizzi, J; Fagioli, F; Pedrazzi, Marcello; Borella, Paola. - STAMPA. - .:(2016), pp. 83-83. (Intervento presentato al convegno 6th International Symposium Federetion of European Societies on Trace Elements and Minerals- New horizons on trace elements and minerals role in human and animal health tenutosi a Catania, Italy nel 26-28 May 2016).