Inflammation mediated by the immune system is known to be important in carcinogenesis and, specifically, T helper 17 cells have been reported to play a role in tumor progression by promoting neo-angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in serum were related to tumor size in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Il-6, IL-17, TNF-α and VEGF levels were measured in EBC and serum of 15 patients with stage I-IIA NSCLC and in 30 healthy controls by immunoassay. The tumor size was measured by a CT scan. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-17 and VEGF were significantly higher in EBC of patients with lung cancer, compared with controls, while only serum IL-6 concentration was higher in patients compared to controls. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p = 0.001) was observed between EBC levels of IL-6 and IL-17; IL-17 was also correlated to EBC levels of the VEGF (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and TNF-α (r = 0.62, p = 0.014). The tumor diameter was significantly correlated with EBC concentrations of VEGF (r = 0.58, p = 0.039), IL-6 (r = 0.67, p = 0.013) and IL-17 (r = 0.66, p = 0.017). Our results show a significant relationship between inflammatory and angiogenic markers, measured in EBC by a non-invasive method, and tumor mass.
Inflammatory cytokines and VEGF measured in exhaled breath condensate are correlated with tumor mass in non-small cell lung cancer / Brussino, Luisa; Culla, B; Bucca, Caterina; Giobbe, R; Boita, Monica; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo; Heffler, Enrico Marco; Oliaro, Alberto; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Rolla, Giovanni. - In: JOURNAL OF BREATH RESEARCH. - ISSN 1752-7155. - 8:2(2014), pp. 257-261. [10.1088/1752-7155/8/2/027110]